様々な分野でグローバルに活躍する「普通の人々」が体験を語り、次世代の普通の人々のお役に立てればと思っているサイトです。

日本在住歴約40年のRon McFarlandと外資系勤務が長い齋藤信幸が、それぞれの海外体験を語ります。

Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.58 ディーラーのマネージメント(3)

2016-07-28 23:46:47 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

Ron McFarland氏の自叙伝も後半に入りましたが、ここでお知らせです。

RonさんはLINUXで有名なRED HAT社のHome Pageにコラムを提供しています。

是非、覗いてみてください。

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BUSINESS MANAGEMENT MEASUREMENTS

The most fun I have had in this top management seminar is show department managers that they can be their own boss. They don’t have to be just an employee to the owner and can take responsibility for the success of their department.

Performance data on department sales, gross profits and expenses were gathered, analysed and decisions made based on that data.

Also, between departments profit per employee, employee turnover, expenses control and many other figures can be compared.

「Fixed Coverage」とは何?
In the automotive dealership there is a term called “Fixed Coverage” which is very interesting. Imagine separating all the departments in the dealership into two groups, “fixed departments” and “variable department”. The “fixed department” are not greatly affected by economic changes (GDP, inflation, employment figures, etc.). They are the parts department, service department, and bodywork department. Variable departments are greatly affected. They are the new vehicle sales, used vehicle sales, insurance, financing, etc. If a dealer covers a high percentage of its total fixed cost by the fixed departments, it is more able to withstand economic downturns.
同様な考えは、生産財の一つである製造装置業界にもありますね。製造装置のアフター・サービスを重要視する経営です。

Another interesting number is the amount of sales needed to cover a US$100 lunch with a customer in each department. Sometime, US$500 - US$1,000 in sales is required. It makes a manager stop and think a bit about his expenses. I applied this to selling cutting tools when considering international business trips. If the customer buys very little, I would rather have meetings over the internet. If the customer purchases a great deal, and there are great opportunities for future business, a personal visit would be more appropriate.
あたりまえのことですが、顧客を層別できず、本質的な意味での適切なバランスの取れたサービスができていないケースが見受けられます。

This seminar was interesting for me, as it reminded me of my college days when I first started writing it. I used mostly General Motors’ account practices for dealers, which is the most detailed that I knew of. I can now apply that knowledge to many businesses globally.

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.57 ディーラーのマネージメント(2)

2016-07-27 22:16:40 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

ディーラーや代理店の部品在庫をどう適正化するか、自動車業界に限らず、どの業界にも共通の問題ですね。

さて、Ronさんはどうマネージしたのでしょうか。

PARTS DEPARTMENT

The parts department buys parts from the manufacturer and sells to the public. The real expertise of this department is buying parts for future demand, usually 3-6 months in the future.

最大の顧客は社内の修理サービス部門
The biggest customer of the parts department is the service department which uses the parts when repairing/maintaining vehicles. So, quick deliveries to the service department are important.

一般客にも販売
The parts department also sells over the counter when customers come in. Therefore, this business is very similar to your grocery store. There are impulse purchases for accessories along with repair parts and maintenance parts.

他の修理工場やパーツ屋にも販売
There is also outside sales to outside repair shops and other parts stores. In this case, good inventory and quick deliveries are important.

どうパーツの需要を予測するか
To determine future demand, you have to look at the type of part. There are regular maintenance parts (oil, brake shoes, filters, etc.). These parts are in most demand during the warranty period.

There are wearing parts (engine gaskets and oil seals, piston rings, etc.). The demand for these parts start after the vehicle is 3-5 years old. Before that, they should not be stocked in a dealership but ordered on an emergency basis.

Options are usually in demand when a vehicle is new. From then on demand declines.

Body and “crash parts” are the hardest to forecast, as you never know when an accident will occur, but the demand usually declines with the age of the vehicle, as the appearance becomes less important.

在庫回転率は重要
In terms of stocking inventory, turnover is always important. Simply, how many times is the average inventory sold per year? Also, there are “turn turns” looking at the number of times stocked only are sold per year.

Dead stock – Which parts have not been sold in one year? These should be watched and gotten rid of as soon as possible.

Regarding ordering parts, there are three main types - emergency orders, interim orders, regularly scheduled orders. Emergency orders are for items you don’t want to stock, as the demand is not great enough and forecasting is very difficult. Finding a way to get it quickly is most important. Interim orders are to replace stock you ran out of and have to stock-up before the regular order. Scheduled orders are the best and cheapest way to get parts. Usually this is done monthly.

Armed with all the knowledge I learned from this seminar, I took it and applied to the cutting tool industry, as my customers have these exact same problems. I started a “safety stock” system so my customers could get items quickly, if they have urgent, not forecasted demand.

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.56 ディーラーのマネージメント (1)

2016-07-26 23:16:51 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

Ronさんは、トラックのセールスマンのトレーニングを行い、いすゞ自動車だけでなくGMからも高い評価を受けました。

また、セールス・トレーニングだけでなく、ディーラー経営のセミナーなども行いました。

では、まず、ディーラーの利益改善の話から始めます。

海外に営業展開をしている会社の場合、直販を行う会社もあると思いますが、地域に根差した地元の代理店を活用している会社が多いのではないかと思います。

代理店とどう付き合っていくか、参考にしていただければと思います。


Chapter #11: GENERAL MANAGEMENT & OTHER SEMINARS

With the success of the salesman and sales management seminars, I started to produce other seminars that would improve the operation of a vehicle dealership.


DEALERSHIP GENERAL MANAGEMENT ディーラーの一般的なマネージメント

An automobile dealership is more than just one business. Each department in the dealership could act as its own business with the exception of the top management and overall accounting. There are vehicle sales departments, parts and accessories departments, mechanical service departments, bodywork departments, vehicle finance and insurance departments and leasing and rental departments. All of these departments could make money.

ディーラーの利益改善のプログラムを開発
There were times when Isuzu dealerships in some countries wanted to buy vehicles but the dealership’s financial situation was so bad that they could not pay for them even though there is a market and demand. Therefore, I developed a training program to improve the overall profitability of the dealership, centering on the three biggest departments (vehicle sales departments, vehicle service departments and vehicle parts departments). The program I developed promoted the concept that all departments should be profitable.

VEHICLE SALES DEPARTMENTS

For vehicle sales department, there are two types. The new vehicle department buys vehicles from the manufacturer and sells them to the public. The used vehicle department buys vehicles from the market, works on them in the service department and re-sells them to the market at a higher price over the cost of repairs and the price paid to purchase them.

The sales management program that I have discussed helps the profitability of the vehicle sales department. In most passenger car dealership cases, this is where most of the money in the dealership is made.

SERVICE DEPARTMENT

This seminar was developed because many car and truck dealerships lose money in their service department. So, I started this training by introducing how money is made from vehicle service and maintenance labor sales.

Interestingly, the fixed asset investment made in the service department is the highest in a dealership with all the equipment required. Also, interestingly their product is labor time. In some dealerships, service gets credit for selling parts, but most of their sales is in the form of labor service. They buy the parts from the parts department, take a margin and sell the parts to the customer along with the labor charge.

Another interesting thing about the service department is that it can keep customers coming to the dealership after a vehicle is sold. So, repeat business can be generated as well as referrals.

When attending one of General Motors’ training programs, I received a very interesting survey for analyzing the service department. It covered active customers, inactive customers, employees and the service manager himself. It was an interesting study, and I was able to apply that material to many retail businesses.

The service department has three main customers. It repairs vehicles that users have. The work is usually broken down into service (when a vehicle does not work right) and preventive maintenance, which is scheduled.

It also does work on warranty and charges the manufacturer.

Lastly, it does work for other departments in the dealership. For example, it checks new vehicles coming in from the manufacturer. In this case, it charges the sales department. It installs accessories. This could be charged to the parts department or the sales department.

Other topics in this training covered utilization of people, equipment and space, etc. That was fun to look at, as well as how to sell and promote added service to the service customer.

パーツ部門に関しては、次回に譲ります。

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.55 セールスマネージャの指導方法

2016-07-24 11:17:05 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

営業の目標設定というと、売上目標いわゆるノルマがあげられます。

これは数値目標であり、管理手法は計数(ノルマ)管理となります。

計数管理の問題点は、以下のとおりです。

・間接管理であり実態管理ではない
・計数は操作性があり、単純計算管理の弊害、実態からの遊離の可能性
・入手容易性の点から財務データに依存する割合が高くなる
・計数管理は非情

計数管理だけでは営業の行動が見えなくなり指導もできなくなります。このため実態管理も用いて管理すべきです。

個人個人の売上目標(および新規開拓など)を立て、『理詰めの営業』(下記ブログ参照)で案件を可視化してしっかり管理し、スタッフの指導を行います。

さて、Ronさんの指導方法は?

<Handling deviations>

目標を達成できない部下がいる場合の指導方法

What should a sales manager do if someone is not performing to the minimum standard? I recommend these steps:

1. Set up a private meeting after the first deviation
2. Pinpoint deviations and express how it makes you feel
3. Tell the salesman why you feel that way
4. Ask the salesperson how he feels about the deviation
5. Have discussions as to how to overcome the deviation
6. Once an agreement has been reached, praise the salesman

<Management Objectives and Management Support (Seminar Closing)>

The more a sales person helps customers get what they want, the more the sales person himself will get what he wants.

The more a sales manager helps his sales people get what they want, the more the sales manager himself will get what he wants. Too often sales managers look at sales results, but do not look at his sales people’s activities. I think it is the activities, which the manager should look at and manage the closest.

The above are highlights of one of the most enjoyable seminar I have ever given. I have used it and believe in its contents. It is a seminar I have loved giving.

This material I taught over my years in Isuzu Motors. Once I left Isuzu Motors and started working in the hardware and construction material industry, I apply this content to develop national distributors for cutting tools, which I sold to. It has been fun and very profitable. For some reason, sales management seems to be the weak link in most sales organizations. It is not the salesman but his manager that is not performing his job professionally. In many cases, there is no sales manager at all, and the sales people have to figure out how to sell on their own.

Interestingly, these management skills of helping sales people achieve their goals have no national boundaries. They are international and could be successfully applied anywhere. Sales management training has contributed to my goals better global understanding and bring the world closer together.

私は外資系の営業をしていましたが、正直なところ数値目標は好きでした。

自分の成果を客観的に評価して欲しいというのがその理由です。

皆様の会社では、どのようにセールスをマネージしていますか。

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業『理詰めの営業』はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.54 セールスマネージャのタイプ

2016-07-21 00:04:58 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

半導体関連装置業界でニッチな領域のテクノロジーリーダーでユニークな存在であったKLA-Tencor社とLAM Researchの合併が決まりました。

これで私が過去に在籍した会社や部門がすべてなくなりました。

IBMの場合は、ハードディスク部門が分社化されたのちに日立に売却され、Quantum社はライバルメーカーのSeagateと合併、プルメリアは解散、そしてKLA-Tencorでした。

外資系なので珍しくはないのですが、技術革新が停滞し会社の成長が止まったことに起因する合併が気になります。

では、本日のテーマ、セールス・マネージャのタイプの話を始めます。

Sales Manager Types

Here are four ways sales people see their boss. There are advantages to all of them, but one will build long-term success.

四つのタイプとアドバイス。あなたはどのタイプ?

Nice Guy

If the sales manager is so nice that there is no discipline or support in the case of non-performance, there will always be low standards, low performance and low motivation to sell successfully.

To avoid being "Mr. Nice Guy", the sales manager must care about his sales people's success. If his people do well, congratulate them and praise them for what they have done. If they fail to perform, he should talk to them privately and help them improve. He should discipline when necessary. He should take responsibility for their performance.

Superman

If the success of the company and the penetration of the market are dependent on one skilled, talented, do-it-himself sales manager, he is playing "Superman". The company cannot grow, and it is very vulnerable.

The "Superman" does everything himself. His staff is never required to develop selling skills because the sales manager will do the job for them. They do not develop competitive selling techniques and activities because they have never had a need. All the sales people do are mostly process the orders.

To avoid being a "Superman", the sales manager must realize that his job is not to sell product to customers, but to manage sales people. Sales people sell the product. The sales manager is to help them do their job, not sell for them.

Policeman

Although short-term results are sometimes achieved, if the sales manager is perceived to be a "Mr. Policeman", all manager-salesman communication stops. You do not communicate with a policeman, and the sales staff does not communicate with that type of a sales manager. "Mr. Policeman" lays down the law to everyone on his staff. "It is my way or leave the company", is what he says directly or indirectly. There is little or no real communication, and performance will never reach the team's full potential. The sales manager will not know how to manage his sales people because he will not know how they think.

To avoid being "Mr. Policeman", the manager should show respect for the people on his team. He should keep the lines of communication open so that the sales people feel "safe" in coming to the manager and admitting they have problems. Knowing that, the manager will be able to give them the help they need. A Policeman can only punish, which may not achieve the sales goals.

Coach

The person who can develop ten men is stronger than the person who can do the work of ten. He teaches his people to be better. He supports them. He motivates them on a regular basis.

All good sales managers recognize that their number one job priority and responsibility is to coach and train their sales people to sell. They coach their staff by using procedures similar to below:

- He sets minimum standards of sales performance that he expects of his sales staff.
- Together with each sales person individually, he sets personal performance goals which are at or higher than the minimum standard.
- He stimulates, inspires and encourages. He makes sure the sales people know it is the sales manager's job to help them reach their personal performance goal.
- If they make a mistake, he helps them. He urges them to try again. He does this when the problem is first spotted, not at the end of the month.
- If a sales person is not maintaining his activities (looking for customers, product presentation, demonstration, negotiating, contacting current customers, etc.) or not achieving his goals, he discusses it with the salesman, and they come to a decision on whether he should increase those activities or lower the performance goals.
- He asks them how they could do things better. He suggests how they could improve. Then, he sees that they get the training and the coaching that is needed to do it better.
- He praises them for their successes or partial successes regularly in private and in front of others.

セールス・マネージャとしてのあるべき姿はお分かりですね。

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction & Understanding - A Personal Journey : No.53 セールストレーニング

2016-07-18 23:35:42 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。

前回の営業の面接の記事を読んで、私の最初の転職となったQuantum社の面接を思い出しました。

日本支社で面接をした後、米国カリフォルニア州ミルピタスの本社で面接とのこと。

ビジネスクラス(うれしい!!)の飛行機でサンフランシスコへ。

空港には蝶ネクタイをしたオジサンが「NOBUYUKI SAITO」のボードを持って待っていました。

外に出ると大きなリムジンが。芸能人がアカデミー賞の授賞式などに乗り付ける長~い乗用車です。

ホテルに着くまで落ち着きませんでした。

50分やって10分休憩の面接を13人と二日に亘って行いました。

海外での面接はそれ以降も何回かありましたが、これほどの人数との面接は、Quantumが最初で最後でした。

最近、「スティーブ・ジョブズ」(Ⅱの122ページ)の伝記を読んで、クアンタムはアップルの影響を受け、このような面接をしていたのではないかと思いました。

「まぬけ増殖」を防ぐために、様々な部門の人が面接・評価して採用を決めたのだそうです。

当時、QUANTUM社の最大の顧客はアップルでしたので、その影響はあったのかと推測します。

「まぬけ」ではないと、私は評価されたようでした。

さて、長くなりましたが、10章の続きを紹介します。セールストレーニングの話です。

<Training Sales people and making sure they know how to do the job>

営業の経験に関わりなくトレーニングは必要。トレーニングは、教育とは異なる。
No matter how experienced a sales person is, training is always required for a new-hire. It might be very simple on-the-job training or very extensive formal training. The key to the success of the training is that it is not just education. Education is providing knowledge. Training is providing skills to do very specific tasks on the job professionally.

その内容は
Therefore, to make sure the training is effective, a lot of practice, coaching and role-playing are important. I would cut the content of the training by one-quarter and repeat the activities four times as much. For example, I would show a video on the features of a truck. Then, I would give a slide presentation on it, which is in more detail and two-way discussions could be generated. Then, I would have everyone walk out to the actual vehicle, and I would walk around the vehicle presenting the vehicle’s features. Finally, I would set up a presentation contest among six participants. If the group were large, I would have the rest of the participants be judges. Therefore, the same material is covered over eight times. So, I taught not only the features on the vehicle but the skills of presentation. All of the selling activities should be given training in that way if the sales person’s skills are lacking.

Over my career I gave vehicle product training (product knowledge and product presentation), new salesman training (The selling process and product knowledge), on-going training (addresses a specific competitor or customer problem), low selling salesman training (addresses poor selling salesmen's problems), and field training (training in front of a customer).

<Leadership Styles and the personnel development stages>

管理・監督について
Once the formal training is finished, the management and supervision can start. I taught four leadership styles, the Directing, Coaching, Supporting and Delegating Style. They are all determined by the ability of the staff and how much support they need and want.

<Tools for Sales Management>

There are many tools a sales manager can use. Below is a contact sheet. The Salesman-Manager set monthly goals and record actual performance. Each month the effort and quotas are evaluated and adjusted accordingly. Below is a sample of a few days of the month. Today, this can be computerized.

Ronさんが活用したツール
<Salesman's Daily Effort Sheet>

この部分、ブログ上の制約で旨く表にできませんが、横軸に営業のプロセスを下記、案件ごとに進捗を管理するものです。

横軸になるのは、

Direct Mailing, Telephone Prospecting, Customer Visits, Person Interested, Presentation & Demo, Pricing & Situation, Follow-up Contact, Sales

です。縦軸は案件です。

<Customer contact files Planner>

Other tools are records of customers contacted and what took place. It helps the salesman plan each contact regarding what to say, what questions to ask and what information to gather.

<Owner follow-up files>

Once a product is sold, the salesman should continue to contact the customer. This insures the customer is happy with him, his company and the product itself.

コンプレックスセールスの場合は、顧客との関係もより複雑になるため、『理詰めの営業』では、各種の分析ツールを用意しています。

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

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Global Interaction : No.52 セールスマネージメント

2016-07-14 23:49:40 | Ron's Life Story
グローバルリーダー協会の齋藤信幸です。Ronさんの営業プロセスのマネージメントについては、第8章でお知らせしました。

では、「強力な営業チーム」を作るにはどうすべきか、それがこの章のテーマです。

自分の会社との考え方・仕組みの相違を中心に読んでいただければと思います。

Chapter #10: WHAT SALES MANAGEMENT IS

Over the years of travelling abroad, this program has always been the most fun for me. What it entails is how to manage the selling process among a group of salesmen explained in Chapter 8.

売れない理由
There are three reasons why sales people do not sell. (1) They do not know what to do. (2) They do not know how to do it. (3)Something or someone is interfering in the ability or desire to sell.

営業の見つけ方
In order to building a strong sales force, all three of these reasons must be addressed, and they are handled at different times when working with sales people. Addressing the first reason of not knowing the job should be handled right when the person is hired. You have to find the right people who are willing and able to do the job.

<Hiring Salesman and presenting what the job is>

Ronさんが作った二つのツール
The best time to explain the activities of a sales person’s job is at the point of recruiting. I offered two tools below for determining if a person has the right character to perform the activities required.

<Interview Evaluation for Vehicle Sales Personnel>

Candidate's Name:

Characteristic Not at all  Developmental   Definitely
Empathy and concern for others 1     2          3
Socially outgoing           1     2          3
Leadership ability           1     2          3
Reserved                3     2          1
NOTE: Above are just a few of the characteristics. There are about 20.

面接の後にこのツールで評価
After the interview, I would evaluate the person using the above sheet. I would give one, two or three points. Then, I would total them at the bottom. The higher the number is, the higher the chance of success on the job. This evaluation should be done by three people and then averaged to get a ranking.

I used another sheet, which looks at personality traits. Not all people are suited to be a salesman, and the interviewer must know which traits help and which do not help.

<Personality Traits Important in Vehicle Selling>

Factors That Help Sales Success Factors That Hinder Success
Has desire to be productive      Has interest in artistic, creative, or aesthetic originality
Has spontaneity and energy      Has distaste for moving around town
Has believability           Needs to be liked or popular
NOTE: Above are just a few of the traits.

ジョブディスクリプション。特に、外国人の雇用には必須。ここが日本企業はあいまい。
「いや、仕事なんてすぐ変わるよ」「いろんな仕事をやってもらうから」・・・これが問題を起こすのです。
During the interview, the candidate should receive a clear job description of what he is to do on the job activity by activity. This should be in writing not just verbal. For a vehicle salesman, all the selling steps explained in Chapter 8. You want to make sure the person knows what activities he should be involved in and what he need not do. I have heard that some interviewer have successful candidates sign an agreement that they will perform those activities.

If the person has the desire, personality traits and character, to do these activities in the job description as above, he should be hired.

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齋藤信幸の生産財の営業はここ。

齋藤信幸のロングステイはここ。

***************************************************************************************************************************
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