English Collection



2012年03月31日 | 英語学習

Another physician, Dr. Robin M. Joyce, checks in on me and likens the transplant process to a marathon. I will eventually start to feel better, she says, by Day 10. There's a greaseboard on the wall of my room and I make a calendar.
"greaseboard" はメモを書く為のボードの様ですが辞書で確認します。
・Wiktionary: A whiteboard. Its outdated technology is obvious in the emergency room, where patients are tracked not by computer but by hand on a greaseboard and on forms passed from tray to tray.
"whiteboard" と同じ物と上記辞書に書いてありましたが、不思議な事に他の辞書でこの単語を載せているのは見あたりません。 そこでGoogleで調べて見ると次ぎのような記述があちこちにありました。
*White Board: These whiteboard (also known by the terms markerboard, dry-erase board, dry-wipe board, pen-board & the misnomer greaseboard) is a name for any glossy, usually white surface for nonpermanent markings.
*White boards use erasable markers, whereas grease boards use grease pencils. White boards can be erased with a chalk brush or sponge, but grease boards need a little more work to clean them - usually with a soapy sponge and drying towel
どうも "whiteboard" の前に "greaseboard" があったのだが、簡単に消せる "whiteboard" に置き換えられたのに、未だに "whiteboard" とすべきところを "greaseboard" と言う人がいるということでしょうか?


beat the odds

2012年03月30日 | 英語学習
Reader's Digest 2月号の記事The Marathon DiariesはReader's Digestにも記事を書いているフリーランスのライターの闘病日記です。次ぎの文はその記事からの抜粋です。
I admit I don't conduct much further research into multiple myeloma. I don't ask Dr. Tzachanis about my disease staging, or what my chances for survival might be. I know I am in bad shape, but I also know that somebody always beats the odds. Someone has to win: It might as well be me.
"odds" を含む慣用句は幾つもありますが、上の文に出てきた "beat the odds" は何でしょう?
・Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary: Despite/against the odds, she has survived breast cancer:.I tried to beat the odds. [=to succeed even though I was not likely to succeed]
・Cambridge English Dictionary: to succeed despite having a disadvantage: Many mergers fail to deliver value to shareholders, but the bank's new president thinks it will be able to beat the odds.


2012年03月29日 | 英語学習
Reader's Digest 2月号の記事 "The BABY Who Was LOVED BACK To LIFE" の中にあった単語が気に入ったので覚えたいと思います。 双子を出産したのですが、その内の一人が呼吸を始めず、心臓も動きません。 医師もついにあきらめましたが、母親が胸に抱いて子供に話しかけていたら、その赤ん坊が生き返ったとの話です。
Placing newborn babies on their mother's skin, especially if they are premature, is called "Kangaroo mother care". And it has been proven by medical science to boost their chances of survival. Just like a joey develops in the pouch, it's thought that a mother's chest provides the closest approximation to the environment of the womb.
文脈からして "joey" にはKangarooの幼児の意味がある様ですが、辞書で確認します。
・Collins English Dictionary: a young kangaroo or possum; A female can carry a ` joey " weighing up to 15 per cent of its own weight without any additional exertion, according to a new study.
・Webster's New World College Dictionary: 1.a young kangaroo 2.any young animal: Mother kangaroos often have a joey in pouch and a joey at foot - neither can survive without her.
"joey" は可愛い名前なので覚えられそうです。

all-purpose flour

2012年03月28日 | 英語学習
以前はReader's Digestは気に入った記事しか読んでいませんでしたが、最近は広告を含めほとんど全ての記事を読んでいるので、毎月連載されているWHAT'S COOKINGにあったこの単語は何度も目にしているはずです。
Ingredients (18 servings)
2 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
今回この "all-purpose flour" が気になったのは、小麦粉安売りの表示をスーパーで見掛けたのですが、小麦粉には薄力粉と書かれていました。薄力粉に対して、強力粉がある事は私でも知っています。もっともどちらがうどん用でどちらがパン用かは知りませんが。考えて見ると英語で薄力粉、強力粉を何と言うか知りません。そこで和英辞典を見ると、それぞれ
soft flour/weak flour/cake flour、hard flour/strong flour/bread flourとありました。 となると "all-purpose flour" はその中間と言うか、両方の小麦粉を混ぜた小麦粉の様な気がします。そもそも同じ小麦粉の薄力粉と強力粉はどう違うのでしょうか? 英英辞書でその違いが分かるか見てみます。
bread flour: wheat flour from which a large part of the starch has been removed, thus increasing the proportion of gluten.
cake flour: finely ground wheat flour.
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption. More wheat flour is produced than any other flour. Wheat varieties are called "clean," "white," or "brown" or "hard" if they have high gluten content, and they are called "soft" or "weak" flour if gluten content is low. Hard flour, or bread flour, is high in gluten, with 12% to 14% gluten content, and has elastic toughness that holds its shape well once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer or crumbly texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.
薄力粉と強力粉の違いはグルテンの量によるのですね。 "all-purpose flour" の個所も抜粋します。
All-purpose or plain flour is a blended wheat flour with a protein content lower than bread flour, ranging between 9% and 12%. Depending on brand or the region where it is purchased it may be composed of all hard or soft wheats, but is usually a blend of the two, and can range from low protein content to moderately high. It is marketed as an inexpensive alternative to bakers' flours which is acceptable for most household baking needs.

have the bit between one's teeth/take the bit between one's teeth

2012年03月27日 | インポート

さて、昨日取り上げた単語 "pulverize" を調べた辞書の説明にあった次の文章に慣用句らしき表現がありました。
Brunner had heard of the things, used in the Gulf War to pulverize the Iraqi trenches, but the Dutchman had the bit between his teeth.
"have the bit between one's teeth" は歯に何かが詰まった感じですが、辞書に "have the bit between one's teeth" あるいは "have the bit between one's teeth" で次ぎの説明がありました。
・TheFreeDictionary: have/take the bit in one's teeth: To be uncontrollable; cast off restraint.
・Random House Dictionary: take the bit in / between one's teeth, to cast off control; willfully go one's own way: He took the bit in his teeth and acted against his parents' wishes.
・Collins English Dictionary: a.to undertake a task with determination; b.to rebel against control



2012年03月26日 | 英語学習
今日はThe History of Flightを話題にしたReader's Digest 2月号の記事AIR TIMEに出てきた単語です。
The biggest leap forward in WWII, however, came with the introduction of size. Until then, even multi-engined bombers were not dramatically larger than early designs but the Boeing B-29 bomber changed all that. Introduced in 1942, it was capable of carrying a 9000 kilogram bomb load and flying up to 18 hours at almost 10,000 metres. Fleets of B29s pulverised targets in Japan - and may have changed the course of WWII. They certainly changed the course of aircraft design.
B29と言う単語は子供の頃よく耳にしましたが、さすがに最近では滅多に聞くこともなくなりました。 さて、そのB29が "pulverise" した事とは何でしょう? 爆弾を落とした事にははっきりしているのですが、爆弾を落とた結果の状態を表しているのでしょうか?
・Macmillan Dictionary: 1.to crush something into very small pieces, or powder, or a nearly liquid substance 2. to defeat an opponent completely: Our team was pulverized by the defending champions.
・Cambridge English Dictionary: 1. to press or crush something until it becomes powder or a soft mass: pulverized coal/bones 2. to defeat someone easily
・Collins English Dictionary:
1.to reduce (a substance) to fine particles, as by crushing or grinding, or (of a substance) to be so reduced
2.(tr) to destroy completely; defeat or injure seriously: Brunner had heard of the things, used in the Gulf War to pulverize the Iraqi trenches, but the Dutchman had the bit between his teeth .
最後に取り上げた辞書の例文にあった "had the bit between his teeth " は慣用句の様なのでこれは明日の宿題にします。

Spring has come

2012年03月25日 | 英語学習


Q. Can February march?
A. No, but April may!

Q. What flowers grow on faces?
A. Tulips!

Q. Why is the letter A like a flower?
A. A bee comes after it!
ところで、ネットで使っている私の Alias 、バネ/Bane は英語では悪い意味がありますが、小学校時代のあだ名で、自分としては "Spring" の意味で使っています。



2012年03月24日 | 英語学習
The Japan Times Online 3月16日の記事タイトルに覚えたい単語がありました。
State panel riven on future use of atomic power
"riven" は知らない単語でしたが、次に引用する記事の最初の段落を読むだけで意味が分かります。
A 25-member government panel on national energy policy is deeply divided over the future of nuclear power, according to papers released by the panel.
"riven" の原形の動詞として "rive" もありそうなので、辞書で確認します。
まず "riven" を辞書で見ます。
・Macmillan Dictionary: a country or organization that is riven by disagreement or other difficulties is divided by them
・Cambridge English Dictionary: violently divided: It was a community/nation/family riven by hatred.
次に "rive" なる動詞があるか見ます。
・Vocabulary.com: 1. tear or be torn violently 2. separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument: The waters on every side poured, through the riven vessel.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: a) to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces: rend b) to split with force or violence c) to divide into pieces: nations riven by civil war
物が刃物や激しい力で裂けられるだけではなく、国や国民が内戦なり、意見の相違で分かれるのにも "rive" が使われる事が辞書の例文で分かります。


2012年03月23日 | 英語学習
Reader's Digest 2月号の単語クイズ、WORD POWERのテーマは "Two of a Kind" で、"chop-chop" の様に同じスペルが二度続く単語でした。私の知っていたのは15問の内下記のたったの5個のみでした。
muumuu: long, loose dress. Natalie was jealous of the authentic muumuu her sister brought back from her honeymoon.
tsetse: type of fly. Sleeping sickness, a disease marked by lethargy and confusion, is transmitted by tsetse fly.
chop-chop: promptly. Yes, the soup arrived chop-chop, but I seriously doubt it's homemade.
chin-chin: salutation or toast. Nevelle looked forward to saying "chin-chin" to his classmates at the reunion.
couscous: semolina dish. Our family's couscous recipe is five generations old.
"meme": idea or trait that spreads within a culture. The abuse of the word like is an unfortunate meme dating back to the '80s.
"meme" の意味と例文を辞書でも確認します。
・Vocabulary.com: a cultural unit (an idea or value or pattern of behavior) that is passed from one person to another by non-genetic means (as by imitation)
A meme is an idea or habit that's passed between people and generations through imitation. An example of a meme is the cultural tradition of women wearing skirts.
A cultural idea, value, habit, or even something like a tune is a meme if it is picked up from someone else. A meme, which is pronounced "meem," will change over time, like younger kids who want to wear the exact same clothes but who eventually develop their own, though similar, styles. Recently, meme has become commonly used to refer to Internet memes ? pictures, videos, or even slang words that are shared between Internet users.
"meme" は覚えておいて損はしない単語ですね。女性がスカートをはくのも a kind of "meme" との説明はとても分かり易い。 間違えてもミーミーと発音しないように。


2012年03月22日 | 英語学習

The Virgin and the Gipsy も終わりに近づいてきました。Yvetteは突然に発生した川の氾濫による洪水に見舞われます。
"No!" he cried. "No! Take your things off and I rub you with this towel. I rub myself. If the house falls then die warm. If it don't fall, then live, not die of pneumonia."
Coughing, shuddering violently, he pulled up his jersey hem and wrestled with all his shuddering, cold-racked might, to get off his wet, tight jersey.
"rack" に色々の意味があるのは知っていますが、"cold-racked" の適当な意味が浮かんできません。
辞書を見ると次ぎの二つの辞書に "-racked" の項目がありました。
・Cambridge English Dictionary: showing or feeling the physical or mental pain, trouble, etc. mentioned: a pain-racked gesture; a guilt-racked society
・MyWord.info: A word ending that indicates showing or feeling pain or emotion. Created by people to expand meaning of words. Can be added to the end of many words.: But she wasn't the only one that was pain-racked.; He achieved "instant prominence" for the anguish-racked songs.