English Collection


fine rose

2011年04月30日 | 英語学習
さて、NATUREWATCH の前半は植物の話が主役でこんな文がありました。
If you have a spare plantlet or two, show your child what happens to the plant in a torrential downpour, then he will understand why the fine rose is necessary on the watering can or hose pipe.
この "fine rose" はJulietが言う "that which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet" のバラではない事は明らかです。 文の前後から意味は容易に推測できますが本当にそんな意味があるのか不思議です。ともかく辞書で確認します。
・Oxford English Dictionary: a perforated cap attached to a shower, the spout of a watering can, or the end of a hose to produce a spray.
・American Heritage Dictionary: A perforated nozzle for spraying water from a hose or sprinkling can.
残念ながら "rose" に何故この様な意味があるのかは分かりませんでした。

engaging smile

2011年04月29日 | 英語学習
行動経済学者である "PREDICTABLY IRRATIONAL" の著者が行った "the influence of arousal" のテストに応募してきたMITの男子学生、マイクの描写です。
Mike was slender and tall, with short hair, an artistic air, and an engaging smile.
"engaging smile" ですが、"engaging" のこの様な使い方、意味は知りません。早速辞書を見ます。
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: tending to draw favorable attention or interest : attractive (an engaging smile); movie stars often have an engaging aura that is hard to describe
・V2 Vocabulary Building Dictionary: so charming or pleasing it captivates your attention
 I was mesmerized by her engaging smile. (charming, magnetic, attractive)
 The artist’s work was so engaging, I returned to the gallery several times. (captivating, attractive)
Tips: When learning the word engaging, think, gaining and holding a person's attention. Engaging describes things or people that are so charming or attractive they captivate attention. The verb to engage has several meanings, including, to participate, employ, occupy, fascinate, and to interest someone with something.
"engaging" にこんな魅力的な意味があるとはね。
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2011年04月28日 | 英語学習
予約しているReader's Digestの3月号がまだ手に入らないのでつなぎの本としてNATUREWATCH を読み始めました。副題に Exploring nature with your childrenとある様に、大人と子供が読む本で、大人向けの個所は活字が小さく、子供向けの個所は活字は大きく太字になっている本です。大人向けの個所は使われている言葉も難しくなっています。
One of the many strange things about plants is the bending movements that they make in response to light, gravity and water. Children are intrigued by these movements, called tropisms, enjoying the experiments you do together to observe them.
"tropisms" は確かに難しそうな単語で憶えられそうもありません。
The plant that has not been turned will have bent towards the light. The one that was evenly exposed to the light will have grown straight upwards, showing how the light influences the direction of plant growth. This is called heliotropism.
と書かれています。 大人向けには次ぎの補足もありました。
The word "heliotropism" comes from two Greek words, helios, meaning sun, and tropos meaning turn.
"heliotropism" も難しい単語ですが、向日性植物の事を "heliotrope" と言うのでそれを思い出せば "heliotropism" も "tropism" も簡単に憶えられそうです。


2011年04月27日 | 英語学習
"PREDICTABLY IRRATIONAL" と言う行動経済学の本を読んでいます。経済はやたらに実験はできない学問と思っていましたが、行動経済学はむしろ実験により理論を見つけ出す学問のようで、色々な人間を対象にした実験がでてくるので面白いし、説得力があります。人間は興奮している時の判断力は、正常時の判断とは大きく変わるとの説も納得できる話でした。性的興奮状態の実験の話の個所にあった文を引用します。
In terms of sex, their wiring is a lot simpler than that of woman (as we concluded after much discussion among ourselves and our assistants, both male and female).
"their" は男性の被験者を示しています。 そして "wiring" は前に取り上げた "wired"(Ref. http://blog.alc.co.jp/blog/3302827/archive/2010/12/20 ) の名詞形のようです。
・American Heritage Dictionary: A part of the body's physiology or neurology that determines or controls something, such as a capability or disorder: "Evolution, having made the basic computational units of language innate, may have seen no need to replace every bit of learned information with innate wiring" (Steven Pinker).
・Encarta World English Dictionary: physiological structure determining function: a neurological or physiological structure or process that controls a function in the body
A certain degree of anxiety may simply be built into our wiring.


2011年04月26日 | 英語学習
たまたまGardens Indoorsと言う大人と子供向けの本を読み始めたら最初のページのキャプションが "A Window Garden from Slips" とあり、この "Slips" は何?、ですが、読み進めると:
Next they cut some slips from the geraniums.
They knew that the slips had roots and were begining to grow.
とあるので、slip はいわゆる挿し木(ゼラニウムは木ではなく草花なので日本語では挿し木とは言わないかも知れないが、他に適当な日本語が思い浮かばない)の一片だと分かる。
Sometimes slipsare called cuttings.
私が知っている挿し木、接木にあたる英語に "graft" がありますが、念のために slip を辞書で確認します。
・American Heritage Dictionary:
noun: A part of a plant cut or broken off for grafting or planting; a scion or cutting.
verb: To make a slip from (a plant or plant part)
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: a small shoot or twig cut for planting or grafting : scion.
トマトは二種類の苗、赤色と黄色のミニトマトを一本づつしか植えていません。前の経験でトマトはゼラニウムと同様に "slips" で増やせることを知っているので。
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2011年04月25日 | 英語学習
人は皆 Free! に弱い。ここで言うFree! は自由の事では無く、無料の意味です。"PREDICTABLY IRRATIONAL " のThe Cost of Zero Costの章に著者がHondaのミニバンを買うつもりだったのに3年間オイル交換無料の宣伝に釣られてAudiを買ってしまった逸話がありました。
It gets worse, though: now I have an Audi that is packed to the ceiling with action figures, a stroller, a bike, and other paraphernalia.
ここに出てきた "paraphernalia" は既に何度か色々な文で見かけた単語で、English Collectionにも取り上げた事があると思ったのですが、実際に取り上げた記録は見あたらなかったので今回取り上げることにしました。
・American Heritage Dictionary:
1.Personal belongings.
2.The articles used in a particular activity; equipment: a photographer's paraphernalia.
3.A married woman's personal property exclusive of her dowry, according to common law.
・V2 Vocabulary Building Dictionary: 1. equipment needed for a particular activity; 2. assorted objects or collectibles
Example: Mike is a big sports nut and collects team paraphernalia for his favorite sports teams. (goods, collectibles)
Tips: Paraphernalia is derived from the Late Latin parapherna, which means "a woman's property besides her dowry." Think, property and equipment. You probably have heard the phrases "drug paraphernalia" or "sport's paraphernalia." Drug paraphernalia refers to equipment used to do drugs or hold drugs. Sports paraphernalia can refer to sports equipment or sports collectibles and other objects that represent a particular sport.
日本語で "~用品/用具" と言う事がありますが、その様な場合にも使える単語ですね。
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Who discovered South Africa

2011年04月24日 | 英語学習
・A math joke
Teacher, I can't solve this problem.
Any five year old should be able to solve this one.
No wonder I can't do it then, I'm nearly ten!
Teacher: I hope I didn't see you looking at Fred's test paper.
Pupil: I hope you didn't see me either!
・Who discovered South Africa
Teacher: Alex, can you please find South Africa on the map?
Alex: Here it is!
Teacher: Correct! Now class, who discovered South Africa?
Class: Alex!

what makes someone tick

2011年04月23日 | 英語学習
"The Drunkard's Walk" を読み終えたので次ぎの本として "PREDICTABLY IRRATIONAL" by Dan Ariely を読み始めました。 この本もオーストラリア人のピーターさんが推薦していた本の一つで、サブタイトルに The Hidden Forces that Shape Our Decisions とあり behavioral economics と言う私には馴染みのない、しかし興味を覚えるのジャンルの本の様です。
My goal, by the end of this book, is to help you fundamentally rethink what makes you and the people around you tick.
"tick" は知らない単語ではもちろんありませんが、ここでの意味がピンと来ません。何せ私は時計でもダニでもないので。早速辞書のお世話になります。
・Dictionary.com: what makes one tick, the motive or explanation of one's behavior: The biographer failed to show what made Herbert Hoover tick.
・McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs: Fig. something that motivates someone; something that makes someone behave in a certain way. (Fig. on what makes something tick.) William is sort of strange. I don't know what makes him tick. When you get to know people, you find out what makes them tick.
・Macmillan Dictionary: the feelings and ideas that make someone behave the way that they do
an interviewer who is determined to find out what makes her subjects tick


2011年04月22日 | 英語学習
桜が散ったと思ったら駅前に植えてあるハナミズキが咲き始めたのに気が付きました。ハナミズキの英語名は何故か "dogwood" で、余り情緒のない名前です。
さて、"The Drunkard's Walk" に出たきた話です。 
With events so foreboding when considered in hindsight, why hadn't anyone privy to this information seen the attack coming?
"in addition to the intelligence reports I quoted, there was a huge amount of useless intelligence, with each week bringing new reams of sometimes alarming or mysterious messages and transcripts that would later prove misleading or insignificant. And even if we focused on the reports that hindsight tells us were important, before the attack there existed for each of those reports a reasonable alternative explanation that did not point toward a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor."
前の引用文にある "privy" のこの意味での例は私には初めてなので意味を調べます。
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: admitted as one sharing in a secret (privy to the conspiracy; privy information on the current state of the peace negotiations)
・V2 Vocabulary Building Dictionary: sharing in or knowing about something private or secret
Tips: When trying to learn the word privy, think of the related word private. Privy refers to "being in the know" about something private or secret. When you are privy to something, you know something that most people don't; you've been let it on a secret. A person who has involvement or interest in someone else's business can also be described as privy. Privy is also a noun, meaning "outhouse. (Ref. http://blog.alc.co.jp/blog/3302827/archive/2009/12/12 )"
Ex. How did you become privy of that information? I thought it was private. (aware, informed)


2011年04月21日 | 英語学習
東京国立近代美術館で開催されている生誕100年岡本太郎展を見てきました。つい最近NHK・TVで岡本太郎の生涯をドラマ化した番組を見たばかりなので、TVで見た絵のオリジナルを幾つか見れました。 作品は幾つかの群(章)に分けて展示されていて、章毎の説明には英文もありました。 その説明の一つに知らない単語がありました。
Confrontation with "Pretty" Art -- Polarism
He disowned the situation of the Japanese art world, which had not changed over years.
タイトルなど目につく日本語以外を除き日本語の説明は全く読まなかったので、上記個所の日本語での説明はどうかかれていたか不明です。 知らない単語 "disowned" を家に帰ってから調べました。
・Oxford English Dictionary: refuse to acknowledge or maintain any connection with: Lovell's rich family had disowned him because of his marriage
・Macmillan Dictionary: to say that you no longer want to be connected with someone or something, for example because you are ashamed of them: I think my parents would disown me if I ever got a tattoo.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary:
1.to refuse to acknowledge as one's own
2.a: to repudiate any connection or identification with
b: to deny the validity or authority of
Example: Her parents threatened to disown her if she didn't go back to school. He was disowned for bringing shame to the family.