English Collection

日頃目に付いた覚えたい英単語、慣用句などの表現についてのメモです。

今年を振り返って

2017年12月31日 | 英語の本を読む

今年も大晦日を迎えました。英語の原書を読み始めてから10年強経ちました。原書を読んで覚えたい単語、気になる表現をブログに投稿するようになったのもその一・二年後なので、やはり10年位は経ったと思います。
初めの頃は読んだ本の記録を全く取っていなかったので、何を読んだのかも1年経つと忘れていましたが、4年程前に多読を勧める話を聞いた時に、読んだ本の名前だけではなく語数も記録することを知りました。多読用の本はレベルと共に語数が書かれていますが、普通の本は語数が分からないので、代わりにページ数を記録することにしました。
2013年は3247ページで、年々ページ数は少しづつ増え、今年は4687ページだったので、やはり少しづつ読む速度は速くなったようだ。カウントはしていないが毎月読んでいるReader's Digestも初めの頃は読むのに貸出期限の2週間かかっていましたが、最近は4日間で読める様になっていることからも本を読むのが速くなったのは確かでしょう。
もっとも、より重要なのは本の内容をしっかりと理解しているかですが、これは今後の課題にしましょう。

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in the loop

2017年12月30日 | 英語の本を読む

SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
Mark, some answers to your earlier questions:
No, we will not tell out Botany Team to "Go fuck themselves." I uderstand you've been on your own for a long time, but we're in the loop now, and it's best if you listen to what we have to say.
"in the loop" 文字通りには輪の中ですが、どんな輪を意味しているのか? 慣用句のような気がします。
・McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs: Fig. in the group of persons communicating regularly about a specific plan or project. I don't know what's going on with the Jones deal since I'm not in the loop. Bob and Jean are in the loop. They can tell you what's happening.
・Farlex Dictionary of Idioms: Informed and/or actively participating in something, such as an ongoing discussion or project, typically involving many people. Please keep Sarah in the loop so she can continue to advise us on the legal ramifications. I'm afraid I haven't been in the loop on this project. Can you bring me up to speed?
日本人が好きな仲間内という感じですね。

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centripetal force

2017年12月29日 | 英語の本を読む

SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
Traveling feet-first along the ladder, he soon had to grip it in earnest as the centripetal force of the rotating ship took hold. By the time he reached Semicone-A he was at 0.4 g.
"centripetal force" は初めて見る単語ですが、知ってる単語の遠心力のにあたる "centrifugal" と似ているので何か関係する意味でしょう。
・Oxford English Dictionary: A force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed toward the center around which the body is moving.: Now, if we set a cylindrical space station in rotational motion at a certain angular velocity, anything that moves with it will need a centripetal force to keep it rotating with the station.
・Collins Dictionary: a force that acts inwards on any body that rotates or moves along a curved path and is directed towards the centre of curvature of the path or the axis of rotation
"centrifugal" とは反対の意味でしたね。

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copy

2017年12月28日 | 英語の本を読む

SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
"Commander," Martinez said. "Message from Houston. We're officially scrubbed. The storm's definitely gonna be too rough."
"Copy," Lewis said.
...
"Commander," said Beck, putting on a headset as he slid into his acceleration couch, "I know you don't want to hear this, but Watn--... Mark's dead."
"Copy," Lewis said. "Martinez, try the radar."
"Roger," Martinez radiod.
"Copy" は上にも出てきた "Roger" と同様に無線通信で使われる符号のような言葉に違いありませんが、 "Roger" と意味の違いはあるのでしょうか?
・Oxford English Dictionary: Hear or understand someone speaking on a radio transmitter.: this is Edwards, do you copy, over
・Dictionary.com: to hear or receive a radio message, as over a CB radio: Do you copy?
・Wiktionary: To receive a transmission successfully.: Do you copy?
そう言えば昔はよく放映されていた米国のTVドラマでパトロールカーの警官が無線連絡の時に使っていた "10-4" もありましたね。
Wikipedeaによると "10-4" はten-codeの内の一つでした。
Ten-codes, officially known as ten signals, are brevity codes used to represent common phrases in voice communication, particularly by law enforcement and in Citizens Band (CB) radio transmissions.
10-4: Acknowledgement/Message received/Affirmative(Ok)/Roger

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home in on

2017年12月27日 | 英語の本を読む

SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
"Visibility is almost zero," Lewis said. "If you get lost, home in on my suit's telemetry. The wind's gonna be rougher away from the Hab, so be ready."
Pressing through the gale, they stumbled toward the MAV, with Lewis and Beck in the lead and Watney and Johanssen bringing up the rear.
"home in on" は1/15/2009に取り上げているので復習です。前回とは異なる辞書の説明を引用します。 ・Oxford English Dictionary: Move or be aimed toward (a target or destination) with great accuracy.: 'more than 100 missiles were launched, homing in on radar emissions’
・Wiktionary: 1. (military, of an aircraft) To draw close to a destination, especially using radar; (of a guided missile) to move towards a target.
2.To focus or narrow down to something; to find, draw closer or move towards, as by trial and error or a gradual seeking process. He used the clues to home in on the source of the flames. We are homing in on a solution.
Usage notes: The phrase originates in military use in the early 20th century, apparently by analogy with the older term homing pigeon. From the 1960s it is also found in the mistaken variant hone in on.

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mete out

2017年12月26日 | 英語の本を読む

The Japan Times November 29, 2017の記事の抜粋です。
An advisory body to the Japan Sumo Association has called for an “extremely harsh punishment” to be meted out to grand champion Harumafuji over his alleged assault of a lower-ranked wrestler, the head of the council has said.
"be meted out" は文脈からした、与えられたとの意味だと思いますが、辞書で確認します。
・American Heritage Dictionary: To distribute and apply a measure or judgment of something: Our school principal metes out strict punishment to those who break the rules.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: to give (something) to the people who one decides should get it : to give out or distribute (something) ・We're trying to be fair in meting out rewards and punishments.
-- usually used to refer to something unpleasant (such as punishment): Huge fines were meted out as punishment.: The king meted out justice as he saw fit.
なるほど、貴乃花親方との聞き取りもやっと実現しましたが、貴乃花も何か "to be meted out" となるのでしょうね。

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mea culpa

2017年12月25日 | 英語の本を読む
SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
This was going to be rough and Annie knew it. Not only did she have to deliver the biggest mea culpa in NASA's history, every second of it would be remembered forever.
"mea culpa" は十数年前に法務の仕事に携わっていた時に覚えた単語です。その頃にブログを始めていたのですが、"mea culpa" を取り上げた記録がないので、今回取り上げることにしました。
・Oxford English Dictionary: An acknowledgment of one's fault or error.: [as exclamation] ‘“Well, whose fault was that?” “Mea culpa!” Frank said’
・Collins Dictionary: an acknowledgment of guilt: If there's something wrong with that then mea culpa.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: a formal acknowledgment of personal fault or error : The mayor's public mea culpa didn't satisfy his critics.
この言葉を知らない政治家は多い様に思います。
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I'll leave you a note.

2017年12月23日 | 英語の本を読む

Life in these United States
When my wife said that she was going to purchase a lottery ticket for the upcoming $200 million drawing, I sarcastically responded, "Yeah, let me know when you win."
With a side glance, she replied, "Oh, I'll leave you a note."

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brain-farting

2017年12月22日 | 英語の本を読む
SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
The million dollar question is, where the hell did the oxygen come from? The whole plan was to limit oxygen and keep an explosion from happening. And it was working for quite a while before blowing up.
I think I have my answer. And it comes down to me brain-farting. Remember when I decided not to wear a space suit? That decision alsomt killed me.
"brain-farting" 脳のおなら? 面白い表現ですが、何でしょう? "brain-farting" の項目で掲載している辞書は見当たりませんでしたが、"brain fart" の項目はありました。
・Oxford English Dictionary: A temporary mental lapse or failure to reason correctly.: I'm having a brain fart and can't spell his name correctly.
・Wiktionary: Something ill-considered and said or done impulsively.
Usage notes: Mildly crude and inappropriate for formal settings.
やはり下品な表現の様ですね。
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exothermic

2017年12月21日 | 英語の本を読む
SFのThe Martian by Andy Weirを読んでいます。
The main thing I had to watch was the temperature. Hydrazine breaking down is extremely exothermic. So I did it a bit at a time, constantly watching the readout of a thermocouple I'd attached to the iridium chamber.
SFらしい単語が出てきますね。"thermocouple" は今勤めている会社でも扱っている熱電対温度計です。"exothermic" は初めて見る単語ですが、これも熱に関係する言葉に違いありません。辞書を見ます。
・Oxford English Dictionary: (of a reaction or process) accompanied by the release of heat. The opposite of endothermic: The rusting of iron is an exothermic reaction and this process is used in hand warmers which are utilized in cold regions.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: characterized by or formed with evolution of heat: Soon, however, the ACA will erupt into an exothermic death trap like ammonium nitrate combined with fuel oil.
なるほど、ホッカイロでお馴染みの現象ですね。
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