英検準1級&東大・京大・早慶の英語(英単語)は英英方式で突破できる!

英英思考を制するものは英語を制す。英英辞典とネイティブ向け読み物への早期移行が異次元の高速学習を可能にした。

「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(1)

2009年08月07日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 日本人が英語で苦労する最大の原因はやたら難しく格調高かった大学入試英語にあると言っても過言ではありません。三面記事が満足に読めない受験生に社説を読ませるようなことをして力がついたら不思議です。しかしゆっくりとした動きながらも大学入試英語や実用英検は、やさしい英語を高い精度で理解する力を問う方向に変わりつつあります。TOEICはビジネス語彙が多少必要になるとはいえ、やさしい英語をスピーディに理解する能力を問う試験です。そのため、三面記事や童話を楽に読めるようになればたいていの英語試験で有利になります。
 そこで、著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成してみました。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。 
 「オズの魔法使い」のような童話が英検、TOEIC、大学入試で出題されることはまずありません。しかし、語彙、語法、文法等に関しては共通点がたくさんあります。
 「オズの魔法使い」の冒頭には以下のようなくだりがあります。

 Dorothy lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies, with Uncle Henry, who was a farmer, and Aunt Em, who was the farmer's wife. Their house was small, for the lumber to build it had to be carried by wagon many miles.

 ここでのforが接続詞で「なぜならば」という意味で使われているあることがわかっていれば、2004年慶応大学総合政策学部で出題された以下の問題を解く有力な手がかりを得ることができます。

(引用開始)
As a professional economist, I am much concerned about the current state of the debate over “globalization.” The debate is lively, often passionate, and has sometimes been violent. Since the debate is untidy and ill-defined, one could react by saying that it has no place for professional economists. But we economists cannot afford to ingore it,
[31](1 if 2 while 3 for) the views and attitudes expressed in it will inevitably affect public policy‐and the issues are critically important for the future economic growth and well-being of all the peoples of the globe.
(引用終了)

※[31]の解答は3 forとなります。

 さらには、When Dorothy stood in the doorway and looked around, she could see nothing but the great gray prairie on every side. とよく似た表現が東進ブックス英熟語FORMULA1000に掲載されていましたので御紹介します。

(引用開始)
As far as the eye can reach, there is nothing but sand.(神戸学院大)
見渡す限りあるのは砂にすぎなかった。[見渡す限り砂ばかりだった]
(引用終了)

 ペーパーバック3ページ足らずの中に多数の重要単語のみならず重要熟語も含まれていました。
もちろん童話を読むだけで大学入試英語を突破できるわけではないにしても、やさしいものでも一冊ペーパーバックを読んでみると格段に英語センスが良くなります。ただ、ある程度の精度を維持しないことには力はつきませんのでシンプルな練習問題を組込んでみました。
 以下、文中の( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。日本語を介在させずに読解力、語彙力を養成できます。わからない単語があれば英英辞典で調べると一層有効です。
 英英辞典が使えるかどうかは
英英実力判定テスト
でお調べください。使いにくければ
english x english
をお試しください。英英辞典を使うのが楽になります。

1. The Cyclone
Dorothy lived in the midst of the great Kansas prairies, with Uncle Henry, who was a farmer, and Aunt Em, who was the farmer's wife. Their house was small, for the lumber to build it had to be ①()()rried by wagon many miles. There were four walls, a floor and a roof, which made one room; and this room ②()()()tained a rusty looking cookstove, a cupboard for the dishes, a table, three or four chairs, and the beds. Uncle Henry and Aunt Em had a big bed in one corner, and Dorothy a little bed in another corner. There was no garret at all, and no cellar--③exc()()() a small hole dug in the ground, called a cyclone cellar, ④wh()()() the family could go in ⑤ca()() one of those great whirlwinds arose, mighty enough to crush any building in its path. It was reached by a trap door in the middle of the floor, from which a ladder led down into the small, dark hole.

When Dorothy stood in the doorway and looked around, she could see ⑥()()()hing but the great gray prairie on every side. Not a tree nor a house broke the broad sweep of flat country that reached to the edge of the sky in all ⑦()()()ections. The sun had baked the plowed land into a gray mass, with little cracks running through it. Even the grass was not green, for the sun had burned the tops of the long blades until they were the same gray color to be seen everywhere. Once the house had been painted, but the sun blistered the paint and the rains washed it away, and now the house was as dull and gray as everything else.

When Aunt Em came there to live she was a young, pretty wife. The sun and wind had changed her, too. They had ⑧()()()en the sparkle from her eyes and left them a sober gray; they had taken the red from her cheeks and lips, and they were gray also. She was thin and gaunt, and never smiled now. When Dorothy, who was an orphan, first came to her, Aunt Em had been so startled by the child's laughter that she would ⑨scr()()() and press her hand upon her heart whenever Dorothy's merry voice reached her ears; and she still looked at the little girl with ⑩()()()der that she could find anything to laugh at.

Uncle Henry never laughed. He worked hard from morning till night and did not know what joy was. He was gray also, from his long beard to his rough boots, and he looked stern and ⑪sole()(), and rarely spoke.

It was Toto that made Dorothy laugh, and ⑫()()ved her from growing as gray as her other ⑬()()()roundings. Toto was not gray; he was a little black dog, with long silky hair and small black eyes that twinkled merrily on either side of his funny, wee nose. Toto played all day long, and Dorothy played with him, and loved him dearly.

Today, however, they were not playing. Uncle Henry sat upon the doorstep and looked ⑭()()()iously at the sky, which was even grayer than usual. Dorothy stood in the door with Toto in her arms, and looked at the sky too. Aunt Em was washing the dishes.

From the far north they heard a low wail of the wind, and Uncle Henry and Dorothy could see where the long grass ⑮()()wed in waves before the coming storm. There now came a sharp whistling in the air from the south, and as they ⑯()()rned their eyes that way they saw ripples in the grass coming from that direction also.

Suddenly Uncle Henry stood up.

"There's a cyclone coming, Em," he called to his wife. "I'll go ⑰()()ok after the stock." Then he ran toward the sheds where the cows and horses were kept.

Aunt Em dropped her work and came to the door. One ⑱gla()()() told her of the danger close at hand.

"Quick, Dorothy!" she screamed. "Run for the cellar!"

Toto jumped out of Dorothy's arms and hid under the bed, and the girl started to get him. Aunt Em, badly ⑲()()()ghtened, threw open the trap door in the floor and climbed down the ladder into the small, dark hole. Dorothy caught Toto at last and started to follow her aunt. When she was halfway across the room there came a great shriek from the wind, and the house shook so hard that she lost her footing and sat down suddenly upon the floor.

Then a strange thing happened.

※(1)の解答①carried ②contained ③except④where⑤case(in case of「~の場合には」は重要熟語)⑥nothing⑦directions⑧taken ⑨scream ⑩wonder⑪solemn(これは大学入試レベルでの難単語だが、児童文学にも登場する。ここでは「いかめしい」くらいの意味)⑫saved⑬surroundings⑭anxiously⑮bowed ⑯turned⑰look(look after「面倒を見る」は重要熟語)⑱glance⑲frightened
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(2)

2009年08月06日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。
(2)
The house whirled around two or three times and rose slowly ①()()()ough the air. Dorothy felt as if she were going up in a balloon.

The north and south winds met where the house stood, and made it the ②exa()() center of the cyclone. In the middle of a cyclone the air is ③()()()erally still, but the great pressure of the wind on every side of the house raised it up higher and higher, until it was at the very top of the cyclone; and there it ④()()mained and was carried miles and miles away as easily as you could carry a feather.

It was very dark, and the wind howled horribly around her, but Dorothy found she was riding quite easily. After the first few whirls around, and one other time when the house tipped badly, she felt as if she were being rocked gently, like a baby in a ⑤crad()().

Toto did not like it. He ran about the room, now here, now there, barking loudly; but Dorothy sat quite still on the floor and waited to see what would happen.

Once Toto got too near the open trap door, and fell in; and at first the little girl thought she had lost him. But soon she saw one of his ears ⑥()()icking up through the hole, for the strong pressure of the air was keeping him up so that he could not fall. She crept to the hole, caught Toto by the ear, and ⑦()()agged him into the room again, afterward closing the trap door so that no ⑧()()re accidents could happen.

Hour after hour passed away, and slowly Dorothy got ⑨()()er her fright; but she felt quite lonely, and the wind shrieked so loudly all about her that she nearly became ⑩de()(). At first she had ⑪()()()dered if she would be dashed to pieces when the house fell again; but as the hours passed and nothing terrible happened, she stopped worrying and ⑫()()solved to wait calmly and see what the future would bring. At last she crawled over the swaying floor to her bed, and lay down upon it; and Toto followed and lay down beside her.

In spite of the swaying of the house and the wailing of the wind, Dorothy soon closed her eyes and fell fast asleep.

2. The Council with the Munchkins
She was ⑬()()akened by a shock, so sudden and severe that if Dorothy had not been lying on the soft bed she might have been hurt. As it was, the jar made her catch her ⑭bre()()() and wonder what had happened; and Toto put his cold little nose into her face and whined dismally. Dorothy sat up and noticed that the house was not moving; nor was it dark, for the bright sunshine came in at the window, ⑮()()ooding the little room. She sprang from her bed and with Toto at her heels ran and opened the door.

The little girl gave a cry of ⑯()()()zement and looked about her, her eyes growing bigger and bigger at the wonderful ⑰()()ghts she saw.

The cyclone had set the house down very gently--for a cyclone--in the midst of a country of ⑱marvel()()() beauty. There were lovely patches of greensward all about, with stately trees ⑲()()aring rich and luscious fruits. Banks of gorgeous flowers were on every hand, and birds with rare and brilliant plumage sang and fluttered in the trees and bushes. A little way off was a small brook, rushing and sparkling along between green banks, and murmuring in a voice very grateful to a little girl who had lived so long on the dry, gray prairies.

※(2)の解答①through ②exact ③generally ④remained ⑤cradle⑥sticking⑦dragged⑧more⑨over ⑩deaf ⑪wondered⑫resolved⑬awakened⑭breath⑮flooding⑯amazement ⑰sights⑱marvelous ⑲bearing
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(3)

2009年08月05日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。
 童話が大学入試に出題されることはまずないとはいえ、センター試験では英文による絵の正しい描写を選ばせる問題が毎年出題されています。
 2009年のセンター試験英語の正解選択肢には
Seeing the drum major lead the marching band live is very exciting. He marches out in front of the band, with his arms swinging and a long, thin baton in his right hand. His uniform looks distinctive, with the school letters across the front and row of buttons running up both sides. His hat is striking, with three white cords across the front and eye-catching white feather set near the top.
というのがありました。

 本日紹介する「オズの魔法使い」には、They wore round hats that rose to a small point a foot above their heads, with little bells around the brims that tinkled sweetly as they moved.というくだりがあります。英文から情景を思い浮かべられるようだと、上記のビジュアル読解問題と呼ばれる新傾向問題に対応するのも楽です。

(3)
While she stood looking eagerly at the strange and beautiful sights, she noticed coming toward her a group of the queerest people she had ever seen. They were not as big as the grown folk she had always been used to; but neither were they very small. In fact, they seemed about as tall as Dorothy, who was a well-grown child for her age, although they were, so ①( )ar as looks go, many years older.

Three were men and one a woman, and all were ②( )ddly dressed. They wore round hats that rose to a small point a foot above their heads, with little bells around the brims that tinkled sweetly as they moved. The hats of the men were blue; the little woman's hat was white, and she wore a white gown that hung in pleats from her shoulders. Over it were sprinkled little stars that glistened in the sun like diamonds. The men were dressed in blue, of the same shade as their hats, and wore well-polished boots with a deep roll of blue at the tops. The men, Dorothy thought, were about as old as Uncle Henry, for two of them had beards. But the little woman was doubtless much older. Her face was covered with wrinkles, her hair was nearly white, and she walked rather stiffly.

When these people drew near the house where Dorothy was standing in the doorway, they ③( )aused and ④( )hispered among themselves, as if afraid to come farther. But the little old woman walked up to Dorothy, made a low bow and said, in a sweet voice:

"You are welcome, most noble Sorceress, to the land of the Munchkins. We are so ⑤grate( )( )( ) to you for having killed the Wicked Witch of the East, and for ⑥( )( )tting our people free from bondage."

Dorothy listened to this speech with wonder. What could the little woman possibly mean by calling her a sorceress, and saying she had killed the Wicked Witch of the East? Dorothy was an ⑦innoc( )( )( ), harmless little girl, who had been carried by a cyclone many miles from home; and she had never killed anything in all her life.

But the little woman ⑧( )( )idently expected her to answer; so Dorothy said, with ⑨( )( )sitation, "You are very kind, but there must be some mistake. I have not killed anything."

"Your house did, anyway," ⑩( )( )plied the little old woman, with a laugh, "and that is the same thing. See!" she ⑪( )( )ntinued, pointing to the corner of the house. "There are her two feet, still sticking out from under a block of wood."

Dorothy looked, and gave a little cry of fright. There, indeed, just under the corner of the great beam the house ⑫( )ested on, two feet were sticking out, shod in silver shoes with pointed toes.

"Oh, dear! Oh, dear!" cried Dorothy, clasping her hands together in ⑬dism( )( ). "The house must have fallen on her. Whatever shall we do?"

"There is nothing to be done," said the little woman calmly.

"But who was she?" asked Dorothy.

"She was the Wicked Witch of the East, as I said," answered the little woman. "She has held all the Munchkins in bondage for many years, making them ⑭sla( )( ) for her night and day. Now they are all set free, and are grateful to you for the ⑮fav( )( )."

"Who are the Munchkins?" ⑯( )( )quired Dorothy.

"They are the people who live in this land of the East where the Wicked Witch ⑰( )( )led."

"Are you a Munchkin?" asked Dorothy.

"No, but I am their friend, although I live in the land of the North. When they saw the Witch of the East was dead the Munchkins sent a ⑱swi( )( ) messenger to me, and I came at once. I am the Witch of the North."

"Oh, gracious!" cried Dorothy. "Are you a real witch?"

※(3)の解答①far ②oddly③paused ④whispered⑤grateful⑥setting⑦innocent⑧evidently⑨hesitation⑩replied⑪continued⑫rested⑬dismay⑭slave⑮favor⑯inquired⑰ruled⑱swift
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(4)

2009年08月04日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。

(4)
"Yes, indeed," answered the little woman. "But I am a good witch, and the people love me. I am not as powerful as the Wicked Witch was who ruled here, or I should have set the people free myself."

"But I thought all witches were ①( )( )cked," said the girl, who was half frightened at ②( )( )cing a real witch. "Oh, no, that is a great mistake. There were only four witches in all the Land of Oz, and two of them, those who live in the North and the South, are good witches. I know this is true, for I am one of them myself, and cannot be mistaken. Those who ③( )welt in the East and the West were, indeed, wicked witches; but now ④th( )( ) you have killed one of them, there is but one Wicked Witch in all the Land of Oz--the one who lives in the West."

"But," said Dorothy, after a moment's thought, "Aunt Em has told me that the witches were all dead--years and years ago."

"Who is Aunt Em?" inquired the little old woman.

"She is my aunt who lives in Kansas, where I came from."

The Witch of the North seemed to think for a time, with her head bowed and her eyes upon the ground. Then she looked up and said, "I do not know where Kansas is, for I have never heard that country ⑤( )( )( )tioned before. But tell me, is it a ⑥( )( )vilized country?"

"Oh, yes," replied Dorothy.

"Then that ⑦( )( )counts for it. In the civilized countries I believe there are no witches left, nor wizards, nor sorceresses, nor magicians. But, you see, the Land of Oz has never been civilized, for we are cut off from all the rest of the world. ⑧There( )( )( )( ) we still have witches and wizards amongst us."

"Who are the wizards?" asked Dorothy.

"Oz himself is the Great Wizard," answered the Witch, sinking her voice to a whisper. "He is more powerful than all the rest of us together. He lives in the City of Emeralds."

Dorothy was going to ask another question, but just then the Munchkins, who had been standing silently by, gave a ⑨( )oud shout and pointed to the corner of the house where the Wicked Witch had been lying.

"What is it?" asked the little old woman, and looked, and began to laugh. The feet of the dead Witch had disappeared ⑩( )( )tirely, and nothing was left but the silver shoes.

"She was so old," ⑪( )( )plained the Witch of the North, "that she dried up quickly in the sun. That is the end of her. But the silver shoes are yours, and you shall have them to wear." She reached down and picked up the shoes, and after ⑫( )( )aking the dust out of them handed them to Dorothy.

"The Witch of the East was proud of those silver shoes," said one of the Munchkins, "and there is some charm ⑬( )( )nnected with them; but what it is we never knew."

Dorothy carried the shoes into the house and ⑭( )( )aced them on the table. Then she came out again to the Munchkins and said:

"I am anxious to get back to my aunt and uncle, for I am sure they will ⑮wor( )( ) about me. Can you help me find my way?"

The Munchkins and the Witch first looked at one another, and then at Dorothy, and then shook their heads.

"At the East, not far from here," said one, "there is a great ⑯dese( )( ), and none could live to ⑰( )ross it."

"It is the same at the South," said another, "for I have been there and seen it. The South is the country of the Quadlings."

"I am told," said the third man, "that it is the same at the West. And that country, where the Winkies live, is ruled by the Wicked Witch of the West, who would make you her slave if you passed her way."

"The North is my home," said the old lady, "and at its edge is the same great desert that ⑱( )( )rrounds this Land of Oz. I'm ⑲afra( )( ), my dear, you will have to live with us."

※(4)の解答①wicked ②facing③dwelt④that⑤mentioned⑥civilized⑦accounts⑧Therefore⑨loud⑩entirely⑪explained⑫shaking⑬connected ⑭placed ⑮worry⑯desert⑰cross⑱surrounds ⑲afraid
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(5)

2009年08月03日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。わからない単語があれば英英辞典で調べると一層有効です。

(5)
Dorothy began to sob at this, for she felt lonely among all these strange people. Her tears seemed to grieve the kind-hearted Munchkins, for they ①( )( )( )ediately took out their handkerchiefs and began to ②( )( )ep also. As for the little old woman, she took off her cap and balanced the point on the end of her nose, while she counted "One, two, three" in a solemn voice. At once the cap changed to a slate, on which was written in big, white chalk marks:

"LET DOROTHY GO TO THE CITY OF EMERALDS"

The little old woman took the slate from her nose, and having read the words on it, asked, "Is your name Dorothy, my dear?"

"Yes," answered the child, looking up and drying her tears.

"Then you must go to the City of Emeralds. Perhaps Oz will help you."

"Where is this city?" asked Dorothy.

"It is exactly in the center of the country, and is ruled by Oz, the Great Wizard I told you of."

"Is he a good man?" ③( )( )quired the girl anxiously.

"He is a good Wizard. Whether he is a man or not I cannot tell, for I have never seen him."

"How can I get there?" asked Dorothy.

"You must walk. It is a long ④jour( )( )( ), through a country that is sometimes ⑤pleas( )( )( ) and sometimes dark and ⑥terri( )( )( ). However, I will use all the magic arts I know of to keep you from ⑦ha( )( )."

"Won't you go with me?" ⑧( )( )eaded the girl, who had begun to look upon the little old woman as her only friend.

"No, I cannot do that," she replied, "but I will give you my kiss, and no one will dare ⑨inju( )( ) a person who has been kissed by the Witch of the North."

She came close to Dorothy and kissed her gently on the forehead. Where her lips touched the girl they left a round, shining mark, as Dorothy found out soon after.

"The road to the City of Emeralds is ⑩( )( )ved with yellow brick," said the Witch, "so you cannot ⑪mi( )( ) it. When you get to Oz do not be afraid of him, but tell your story and ask him to help you. Good-bye, my dear."

The three Munchkins bowed low to her and wished her a pleasant journey, after which they walked away through the trees. The Witch gave Dorothy a friendly little nod, whirled around on her left heel three times, and straightway ⑫( )( )( )appeared, much to the surprise of little Toto, who ⑬( )( )rked after her loudly enough when she had gone, because he had been afraid even to growl while she stood by.

But Dorothy, knowing her to be a witch, had expected her to disappear in just that way, and was not surprised in the least.

3. How Dorothy Saved the Scarecrow
When Dorothy was left alone she began to feel hungry. So she went to the cupboard and cut herself some bread, which she ⑭spre( )( ) with butter. She gave some to Toto, and taking a pail from the shelf she carried it down to the little brook and filled it with clear, sparkling water. Toto ran over to the trees and began to bark at the birds sitting there. Dorothy went to get him, and saw such ⑮( )( )licious fruit hanging from the branches that she ⑯( )( )thered some of it, finding it just what she wanted to help out her breakfast.

Then she went back to the house, and having helped herself and Toto to a good drink of the cool, clear water, she set about making ready for the journey to the City of Emeralds.

Dorothy had only one other dress, but that happened to be clean and was hanging on a peg beside her bed. It was gingham, with checks of white and blue; and although the blue was somewhat ⑰( )( )ded with many washings, it was still a pretty frock. The girl washed herself carefully, dressed herself in the clean gingham, and tied her pink sunbonnet on her head. She took a little basket and filled it with bread from the cupboard, laying a white cloth over the top. Then she looked down at her feet and noticed how old and worn her shoes were.

"They surely will never do for a long journey, Toto," she said. And Toto looked up into her face with his little black eyes and wagged his tail to show he knew what she meant.

At that moment Dorothy saw lying on the table the silver shoes that had ⑱( )( )longed to the Witch of the East.

"I wonder if they will ⑲fi( ) me," she said to Toto. "They would be just the thing to take a long walk in, for they could not wear out."

She took off her old leather shoes and tried on the silver ones, which fitted her as well as if they had been made for her.

Finally she picked up her basket.

"Come along, Toto," she said. "We will go to the Emerald City and ask the Great Oz how to get back to Kansas again."

She closed the door, locked it, and put the key carefully in the pocket of her dress. And so, with Toto trotting along ⑳( )( )berly behind her, she started on her journey.

※(5)の解答①immediately②weep③inquired④journey⑤pleasant⑥terrible⑦harm⑧pleaded⑨injure⑩paved⑪miss⑫dis⑬barked⑭spread⑮delicious⑯gathered⑰faded ⑱belonged⑲fit⑳soberly

※(5)の解説She came close to Dorothy and kissed her gently on the forehead. Where her lips touched the girl they left a round, shining mark, as Dorothy found out soon after.

 良い魔女がドロシーを守る魔力を帯びたキスをしてくれるシーンで、全然難しい英文ではないです。しかし「ここでtheyが何を指しているかわかりますか?」と尋ねると、答に窮してしまう英語学習者が少なくありません。

 下にスクロールして正解を見る前にちょっと考えてみてください。










 theyは明らかにher lipsを指しています。つまりlipの複数形を指しているわけです。itが「それ」を意味することは誰でも知っています。theyがheやsheの複数形になることも誰でも知っています。しかしtheyがitの複数形として物の代名詞としても多用されることは意外な盲点になっていて、英検1級レベルの学習者でもtheyが人以外の物を指していることに気づかずに誤読することがあります。
 「theyは必ずしも人に非ず」、頭に入れておくと便利です。
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(6)

2009年08月02日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。
(6)
There were several roads near by, but it did not take her long to find the one paved with yellow bricks. Within a short time she was walking briskly ①( )( )ward the Emerald City, her silver shoes tinkling merrily on the hard, yellow road-bed. The sun shone bright and the birds sang sweetly, and Dorothy did not feel nearly so bad as you might think a little girl would who had been suddenly whisked away from her own country and set down in the midst of a strange land.

She was surprised, as she walked along, to see how pretty the country was about her. There were ②nea( ) fences at the sides of the road, painted a dainty blue color, and beyond them were fields of grain and vegetables in ③( )( )undance. Evidently the Munchkins were good farmers and able to raise large ④( )rops. Once in a while she would pass a house, and the people came out to look at her and bow low as she went by; for everyone knew she had been the means of ⑤( )( )stroying the Wicked Witch and setting them free from bondage. The houses of the Munchkins were odd-looking dwellings, for each was round, with a big dome for a roof. All were painted blue, for in this country of the East blue was the ⑥favori( )( ) color.

Toward evening, when Dorothy was tired with her long walk and began to ⑦won( )( )( ) where she should pass the night, she came to a house rather larger than the ⑧( )est. On the green lawn before it many men and women were dancing. Five little fiddlers played as loudly as possible, and the people were laughing and singing, while a big table near by was ⑨( )oaded with delicious fruits and nuts, pies and cakes, and many other good things to eat.

The people ⑩( )reeted Dorothy kindly, and invited her to supper and to ⑪( )ass the night with them; for this was the home of one of the richest Munchkins in the land, and his friends were gathered with him to ⑫celebr( )( )( ) their freedom from the bondage of the Wicked Witch.

Dorothy ate a hearty supper and was waited upon by the rich Munchkin himself, ⑬wh( )( )( ) name was Boq. Then she sat upon a settee and watched the people dance.

When Boq saw her silver shoes he said, "You must be a great sorceress."

"Why?" asked the girl.

"Because you ⑭we( )( ) silver shoes and have killed the Wicked Witch. ⑮Besi( )( )( ), you have white in your frock, and only witches and sorceresses wear white."

"My dress is blue and white checked," said Dorothy, smoothing out the wrinkles in it.

"It is kind of you to wear that," said Boq. "Blue is the color of the Munchkins, and white is the witch color. So we know you are a friendly witch."

Dorothy did not know what to say to this, for all the people seemed to think her a witch, and she knew very well she was only an ⑯ordin( )( )( ) little girl who had come by the ⑰chan( )( ) of a cyclone into a strange land.

When she had tired watching the dancing, Boq led her into the house, where he gave her a room with a pretty bed in it. The sheets were made of blue cloth, and Dorothy slept ⑱( )( )undly in them till morning, with Toto curled up on the blue rug beside her.

She ate a hearty breakfast, and watched a wee Munchkin baby, who played with Toto and pulled his tail and crowed and laughed in a way that greatly ⑲( )( )used Dorothy. Toto was a fine ⑳( )( )riosity to all the people, for they had never seen a dog before.

※(6)の解答①toward②neat③abundance④crops⑤destroying⑥favorite⑦wonder⑧rest ⑨loaded⑩greeted⑪pass⑫celebrate⑬whose⑭wear⑮Besides⑯ordinary⑰chance⑱soundly⑲amused ⑳curiosity
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(7)

2009年07月31日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。
(7)
"How far is it to the Emerald City?" the girl asked.

"I do not know," answered Boq ①( )ravely, "for I have never been there. It is better for people to keep away from Oz, ②unl( )( )( ) they have business with him. But it is a long way to the Emerald City, and it will take you many days. The country here is rich and pleasant, but you must pass through ③rou( )( ) and dangerous places before you reach the end of your journey."

This worried Dorothy a little, but she knew that only the Great Oz could help her get to Kansas again, so she ④( )ravely resolved not to turn back.

She bade her friends good-bye, and again started along the road of yellow brick. When she had gone several miles she thought she would stop to rest, and so climbed to the top of the fence beside the road and sat down. There was a great cornfield ⑤beyo( )( ) the fence, and not far away she saw a Scarecrow, placed high on a pole to keep the birds from the ⑥( )( )pe corn.

Dorothy leaned her chin upon her hand and ⑦( )azed thoughtfully at the Scarecrow. Its head was a small sack ⑧( )tuffed with straw, with eyes, nose, and mouth painted on it to ⑨repres( )( )( ) a face. An old, pointed blue hat, that had belonged to some Munchkin, was perched on his head, and the rest of the ⑩figu( )( ) was a blue suit of clothes, worn and faded, which had also been stuffed with straw. On the feet were some old boots with blue tops, such as every man wore in this country, and the figure was ⑪( )( )ised above the stalks of corn by means of the pole stuck up its back.

While Dorothy was looking ⑫( )( )rnestly into the queer, painted face of the Scarecrow, she was surprised to see one of the eyes slowly wink at her. She thought she must have been mistaken at first, for none of the scarecrows in Kansas ever wink; but presently the figure ⑬( )odded its head to her in a friendly way. Then she climbed down from the fence and walked up to it, while Toto ran around the pole and barked.

"Good day," said the Scarecrow, in a rather husky voice.

"Did you speak?" asked the girl, in wonder.

"⑭Certai( )( )( )," answered the Scarecrow. "How do you do?"

"I'm pretty well, thank you," replied Dorothy ⑮( )olitely. "How do you do?"

"I'm not feeling well," said the Scarecrow, with a smile, "for it is very ⑯tedio( )( ) being perched up here night and day to ⑰( )care away crows."

"Can't you get down?" asked Dorothy.

"No, for this pole is stuck up my back. If you will please take away the pole I shall be greatly ⑱( )( )liged to you."

Dorothy reached up both arms and lifted the figure off the pole, for, being stuffed with straw, it was quite light.

"Thank you very much," said the Scarecrow, when he had been set down on the ground. "I feel like a new man."

Dorothy was ⑲( )( )zzled at this, for it sounded queer to hear a stuffed man speak, and to see him bow and walk along beside her.

"Who are you?" asked the Scarecrow when he had ⑳( )( )retched himself and yawned. "And where are you going?"

※(7)の解答①gravely②unless③rough④bravely⑤beyond⑥ripe⑦gazed⑨represent⑩figure⑪raised⑫earnestly⑬nodded⑭Certainly⑮politely⑯tedious ⑰scare⑱obliged⑲puzzled⑳stretched
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(8)

2009年07月29日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。日本語を介在させずに読解力、語彙力を養成できます。わからない単語があれば英英辞典で調べると一層有効です。

(8)
"My name is Dorothy," said the girl, "and I am going to the Emerald City, to ask the Great Oz to send me back to Kansas."

"Where is the Emerald City?" he ①( )( )quired. "And who is Oz?"

"Why, don't you know?" she returned, in surprise.

"No, indeed. I don't know anything. You see, I am stuffed, so I have no ②( )rains at all," he answered sadly.

"Oh," said Dorothy, "I'm ③( )wfully sorry for you."

"Do you think," he asked, "if I go to the Emerald City with you, that Oz would give me some brains?"

"I cannot tell," she returned, "but you may come with me, if you like. If Oz will not give you any brains you will be no ④( )orse off than you are now."

"That is true," said the Scarecrow. "You see," he continued ⑤( )( )nfidentially, "I don't mind my legs and arms and body being stuffed, because I cannot get hurt. If anyone ⑥( )reads on my toes or sticks a pin into me, it doesn't ⑦( )atter, for I can't feel it. But I do not want people to call me a fool, and if my head stays stuffed with straw instead of with brains, as yours is, how am I ⑧( )ver to know anything?"

"I understand how you feel," said the little girl, who was truly sorry for him. "If you will come with me I'll ask Oz to do all he can for you."

"Thank you," he answered ⑨( )( )atefully.

They walked back to the road. Dorothy helped him over the fence, and they started along the path of yellow brick for the Emerald City.

Toto did not like this addition to the party at first. He ⑩( )melled around the stuffed man as if he ⑪( )( )spected there might be a nest of rats in the straw, and he often growled in an unfriendly way at the Scarecrow.

"Don't mind Toto," said Dorothy to her new friend. "He never ⑫( )ites."

"Oh, I'm not afraid," replied the Scarecrow. "He can't hurt the straw. Do let me carry that basket for you. I shall not mind it, for I can't ⑬( )et tired. I'll tell you a secret," he continued, as he walked along. "There is only one thing in the world I am afraid of."

"What is that?" asked Dorothy; "the Munchkin farmer who made you?"

"No," answered the Scarecrow; "it's a ⑭( )ighted match."

4. The Road Through the Forest
After a few hours the road began to be rough, and the walking ⑮( )rew so difficult that the Scarecrow often ⑯( )tumbled over the yellow bricks, which were here very uneven. Sometimes, indeed, they were broken or missing altogether, leaving holes that Toto jumped across and Dorothy walked around. As ⑰( )or the Scarecrow, having no brains, he walked straight ahead, and so stepped into the holes and fell at full length on the hard bricks. It never hurt him, however, and Dorothy would pick him up and set him upon his feet again, while he joined her in laughing merrily at his own mishap.

The farms were not nearly so well ⑱( )ared for here as they were farther back. There were fewer houses and fewer fruit trees, and the farther they went the more ⑲disma( ) and lonesome the country became.

At noon they sat down by the roadside, near a little brook, and Dorothy opened her basket and got out some bread. She offered a piece to the Scarecrow, but he ⑳( )efused.

※(8)の解答①inquired ②brains③awfully④worse⑤confidentially ⑥treads⑦matter⑧ever⑨gratefully⑩smelled⑪suspected⑫bites⑬get ⑭lighted⑮grew⑯stumbled⑰for⑱cared⑲dismal⑳refused
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(9)

2009年07月27日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。

(9)
"I am never hungry," he said, "and it is a lucky thing I am not, for my mouth is only painted, and if I should cut a hole in it so I could eat, the straw I am stuffed with would come out, and that would spoil the ①sha( )( ) of my head."

Dorothy saw at once that this was true, so she only nodded and went on eating her bread.

"Tell me something about yourself and the country you came from," said the Scarecrow, when she had finished her dinner. So she told him all about Kansas, and how gray everything was there, and how the cyclone had carried her to this ②que( )( ) Land of Oz.

The Scarecrow listened carefully, and said, "I cannot ③unders( )( )( )( ) why you should wish to leave this beautiful country and go back to the dry, gray place you call Kansas."

"That is because you have no brains" answered the girl. "No ④matt( )( ) how dreary and gray our homes are, we people of flesh and ⑤blo( )( ) would rather live there than in any other country, be it ever so beautiful. There is no place like home."

The Scarecrow ⑥( )ighed.

"Of course I cannot understand it," he said. "If your heads were stuffed with straw, like mine, you would probably all live in the beautiful places, and then Kansas would have no people at all. It is ⑦fortun( )( )( ) for Kansas that you have brains."

"Won't you tell me a story, while we are resting?" asked the child.

The Scarecrow looked at her reproachfully, and answered:

"My life has been so short that I really know nothing whatever. I was only made day before yesterday. What happened in the world before that time is all unknown to me. ⑧Lucki( )( ), when the farmer made my head, one of the first things he did was to paint my ears, so that I heard what was going on. There was another Munchkin with him, and the first thing I heard was the farmer saying, `How do you like those ears?'

"`They aren't straight,'" answered the other.

"`Never ⑨mi( )( ),'" said the farmer. "`They are ears just the same,'" which was true enough.

"`Now I'll make the eyes,'" said the farmer. So he painted my right eye, and as soon as it was finished I found myself looking at him and at everything around me with a great deal of ⑩( )uriosity, for this was my first ⑪glimp( )( ) of the world.

"`That's a rather pretty eye,'" ⑫( )emarked the Munchkin who was watching the farmer. "`Blue paint is just the color for eyes.'

"`I think I'll make the other a little bigger,'" said the farmer. And when the second eye was done I could see much better than before. Then he made my nose and my mouth. But I did not speak, because at that time I didn't know what a mouth was for. I had the fun of watching them make my body and my arms and legs; and when they ⑬( )astened on my head, at last, I felt very ⑭pro( )( ), for I thought I was just as good a man as anyone.

"`This ⑮fell( )( ) will scare the crows fast enough,' said the farmer. `He looks just like a man.'

"`Why, he is a man,' said the other, and I quite agreed with him. The farmer carried me under his arm to the cornfield, and set me up on a tall ⑯stic( ), where you found me. He and his friend soon after walked away and left me alone.

"I did not like to be ⑰( )eserted this way. So I tried to walk after them. But my feet would not touch the ground, and I was ⑱( )orced to stay on that pole. It was a lonely life to ⑲lea( ), for I had nothing to think of, having been made such a little while before. Many crows and other birds flew into the cornfield, but as soon as they saw me they flew away again, thinking I was a Munchkin; and this ⑳( )leased me and made me feel that I was quite an important person. By and by an old crow flew near me, and after looking at me carefully he perched upon my shoulder and said:

※(9)の解答①shape②queer③understand④matter⑤blood⑦fortunate⑧Luckily⑨mind⑩cuuriosity⑪glimpse⑫remarked⑬fastened⑭proud⑮fellow ⑯stick⑰deserted⑱forced⑲lead⑳pleased
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「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ大学入試・英検・TOEIC頻出語彙と読解(10)

2009年07月22日 | 「オズの魔法使い」から学ぶ頻出語彙と読解
 著作権の切れた童話「オズの魔法使い」から、シンプルで、大学入試にもTOEICにも英検にも有効な練習問題を作成しています。楽しみながら英語力を伸ばしていただければ幸いです。( )にアルファベットの一文字を入れて文脈に合う単語を完成してください。

(10)
"`I wonder if that farmer thought to fool me in this ①clum( )( ) manner. Any crow of ②sen( )( ) could see that you are only stuffed with straw.' Then he hopped down at my feet and ate all the corn he wanted. The other birds, seeing he was not harmed by me, came to eat the corn too, so in a short time there was a great ③floc( ) of them about me.

"I felt sad at this, for it showed I was not such a good Scarecrow after all; but the old crow ④( )omforted me, saying, `If you only had brains in your head you would be as good a man as any of them, and a better man than some of them. Brains are the only things ⑤wor( )( ) having in this world, no matter whether one is a crow or a man.'

"After the crows had gone I thought this over, and ⑥( )( )cided I would try hard to get some brains. By good luck you came along and pulled me off the stake, and from what you say I am sure the Great Oz will give me brains as soon as we get to the Emerald City."

"I hope so," said Dorothy earnestly, "since you seem ⑦anxi( )( )( ) to have them."

"Oh, yes; I am anxious," returned the Scarecrow. "It is such an uncomfortable feeling to know one is a fool."

"Well," said the girl, "let us go." And she handed the basket to the Scarecrow.

There were no fences at all by the roadside now, and the land was rough and untilled. Toward evening they came to a great ⑧fore( )( ), where the trees grew so big and close together that their ⑨( )ranches met over the road of yellow brick. It was almost dark under the trees, for the branches shut out the daylight; but the travelers did not stop, and went on into the forest.

"If this road goes in, it must come out," said the Scarecrow, "and as the Emerald City is at the other end of the road, we must go wherever it leads us."

"Anyone would know that," said Dorothy.

"⑩Certai( )( )( ); that is why I know it," returned the Scarecrow. "If it required brains to ⑪figu( )( ) it out, I never should have said it."

After an hour or so the light ⑫( )aded away, and they found themselves stumbling along in the darkness. Dorothy could not see at all, but Toto could, for some dogs see very well in the dark; and the Scarecrow ⑬( )eclared he could see as well as by day. So she took hold of his arm and ⑭( )anaged to get along ⑮( )airly well.

"If you see any house, or any place where we can pass the night," she said, "you must tell me; for it is very uncomfortable walking in the dark."

Soon after the Scarecrow stopped.

"I see a little cottage at the right of us," he said, "built of logs and branches. Shall we go there?"

"Yes, indeed," answered the child. "I am all tired out."

So the Scarecrow led her through the trees until they reached the cottage, and Dorothy ⑯( )( )tered and found a bed of dried leaves in one corner. She lay down at once, and with Toto beside her soon fell into a sound sleep. The Scarecrow, who was never tired, stood up in another corner and waited ⑰( )( )tiently until morning came.

5. The Rescue of the Tin Woodman
When Dorothy awoke the sun was shining through the trees and Toto had long been out ⑱( )hasing birds around him and squirrels. She sat up and looked around her. Scarecrow, still standing patiently in his corner, waiting for her.

"We must go and ⑲sear( )( ) for water," she said to him.

"Why do you want water?" he asked.

"To wash my face clean after the dust of the road, and to drink, so the dry bread will not ⑳stic( ) in my throat."

※(10)の解答①clumsy②sense ③flock④comforted⑤worth⑥decided⑦anxious⑧forest⑨branches⑩Certainly⑪figure⑫faded ⑬declared⑭managed⑮fairly⑯entered⑰patiently⑱chasing⑲search⑳stick
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