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中谷宇吉郎ら人工雪の結晶を作ることに成功(1936/03/12)

1936-03-12 00:00:00 | Weblog
1936/03/12

 雪は、その日の温度や湿度によって、牡丹雪になったり粉雪になったりします。さらにその雪を拡大して見てみると、その結晶が様々な形をとっていることがわかります。
 寺田寅彦の弟子だった中谷宇吉郎は、著書「雪」(岩波文庫)に記したように、雪の結晶の出来方を調べることによって、空高くから地表までの大気のしくみがわかると考え、様々な条件でどのような雪の結晶ができるかを研究しました。
 その研究の第一歩は、人の手で、自然でできるものと同じ雪の結晶を作ることでした。

 最初に人工雪の結晶づくりに成功した実験装置は、縦に長い木箱の中で、下から水を温め蒸発させ、昇ってきた水蒸気を、上にある冷たい銅製の箱で冷やし、銅箱につるした繊維に結晶をつくろうとするものでした。実験装置を組み立ててから雪の結晶ができるまでには、様々な試行錯誤が繰り返されましたが、成功したきっかけは、結晶をつくるためにつるした糸を変えてみたことでした。
中谷らは、糸から熱を逃げやすくすることが自然の雪の結晶の成長の状態に近づけるために必要と考え、木綿糸を初めとして様々な繊維を用いた実験を行ったのです。その結果ラシャ糸(ラシャとは厚手の毛織物のことで、ビリヤードの台の張り布などに使われています。)を用いたときに、初めて実験装置で雪の結晶をつくることができました。

 その後、さらにいろんな繊維で雪の結晶ができるかどうかを調べた結果、うさぎの毛の繊維が最も適していることがわかり、うさぎの毛の繊維を使うことで、中谷らの研究は大きく進んでいきました。

 現在、ペットボトルとドライアイスなどを使って、雪の結晶を作る実験が知られるようになりました。もし関心があれば、自分で雪の結晶をつくってみてはいかがでしょうか。
(参考 http://users.eolas-net.ne.jp/saebou/kazupage/pet.htm)

2006/03/07 作成 YK

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