一身二生 「65年の人生と、これからの20年の人生をべつの形で生きてみたい。」


Blaise Pascal (1623 ? 1662)

2013年11月30日 | 哲学

Blaise Pascal (French: [bl?z paskal]; 19 June 1623 ? 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Pascal's earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. Pascal also wrote in defense of the scientific method.

In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and fifty prototypes, he invented the mechanical calculator. He built 20 of these machines (called Pascal's calculators and later Pascalines) in the following ten years. Pascal was an important mathematician, helping create two major new areas of research: he wrote a significant treatise on the subject of projective geometry at the age of 16, and later corresponded with Pierre de Fermat on probability theory, strongly influencing the development of modern economics and social science. Following Galileo and Torricelli, in 1646 he refuted Aristotle's



岩波書店 創業百年

2013年11月29日 | まちあるき




1951年生まれ. 81年,『さようなら,ギャングたち』でデビュー. 88年,『優雅で感傷的な日本野球』で三島由紀夫賞,2002年『日本文学盛衰史』で伊藤整文学賞を受賞.近刊に,『恋する原発』『さよならクリストファー・ロビン』など.

長谷川 一


1941年生まれ.評論家.著作は,『定本 柄谷行人集』(全5巻,岩波書店)、Transcritique: On Kant and Marx(The MIT Press)、『世界共和国へ――資本=ネーション=国家を超えて』(岩波新書)、『世界史の構造』(岩波書店)など多数.



東京生まれ.NY市立大学大学院国際関係学科修士課程修了.国連,証券会社を経て現職.日米間を行き来しラジオ,TV、執筆,講演活動.『ルポ 貧困大国アメリカ』(岩波新書)で新書大賞,日本エッセイストクラブ賞受賞.『政府は必ず嘘をつく』『(株)貧困大国アメリカ』等著書多数.



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    Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 ? 1778)

    2013年11月28日 | 哲学

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French: [????ak ?uso]; 28 June 1712 ? 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th-century. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall development of modern political, sociological, and educational thought. He argued that private property was the start of civilization, inequality, murders and wars.

    Rousseau's novel Émile, or On Education is a treatise on the education of the whole person for citizenship. His sentimental novel Julie, or the New Heloise was of importance to the development of pre-romanticism and romanticism in fiction. Rousseau's autobiographical writings?his Confessions, which initiated the modern autobiography, and his Reveries of a Solitary Walker?exemplified the late 18th-century movement known as the Age of Sensibility, and featured an increased focus on subjectivity and introspection that later characterized modern writing. His Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and his On the Social Contract are cornerstones in modern political and social thought.

    Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist. During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the most popular of the philosophes among members of the Jacobin Club. Rousseau was interred as a national hero in the Panthéon in Paris, in 1794, 16 years after his death.



    The 5th Dimension

    2013年11月27日 | 

    The 5th Dimension is an American popular music vocal group, whose repertoire also includes pop, R&B, soul, and jazz.

    Originally known as The Hi-Fi's, the group changed its name to The 5th Dimension in late 1966 and was best-known during the late 1960s and early 1970s for popularizing the hits "Up, Up and Away", "Stoned Soul Picnic", "Aquarius/Let the Sunshine In", "Wedding Bell Blues", "One Less Bell to Answer", "(Last Night) I Didn't Get to Sleep at All", and The Magic Garden LP.



    サルトル 想像力

    2013年11月26日 | 哲学
  • 『想像力』 L'Imagination(1936年)
  • 『自我の超越』 La Transcendance de l'ego(1937年)
  • 『情緒論素描』 Esquisse d'une théorie des émotions(1939年)
  • 『想像力の問題』 L'Imaginaire(1940年)
  • 存在と無L'Etre et le néant(1943年)
  • 『方法の問題』 Question de Méthode(1960年)
  • 『弁証法的理性批判』 Critique de la raison dialectique(1960年)
  • 『倫理学ノート』 Cahiers pour une morale(1983年、未訳)
  • 『真理と実存』 Vérité et existence(1989年)
  • Sarutor Sarutoru

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    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770 ? 1831)

    2013年11月25日 | 哲学

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (German: [??e???k ?v?lh?lm ?f?i?d??ç ?he???l]; August 27, 1770 ? November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher, and a major figure in German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.

    Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", of Absolute idealism to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, the subject and object of knowledge, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy. In particular, he developed the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. Examples of such contradictions include those between nature and freedom, and between immanence and transcendence.

    Hegel influenced writers of widely varying positions, including both his admirers and his detractors. Karl Barth compared Hegel to a "Protestant Aquinas." Michel Foucault has contended that contemporary philosophers may be 'doomed to find Hegel waiting patiently at the end of whatever road we travel.' Hegel's influential conceptions are those of speculative logic or "dialectic", "absolute idealism". They include "Geist" (spirit), negativity, sublation (Aufhebung in German), the "Master/Slave" dialectic, "ethical life" and the importance of history.

    Hagel Hegel5


    Immanuel Kant (1724 ? 1804)

    2013年11月24日 | 哲学

    Immanuel Kant (German: [??ma?nu?e?l kant]; 22 April 1724 ? 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He argued that human concepts and categories structure our view of the world and its laws, and that reason is the source of morality. His thought continues to hold a major influence in contemporary thought, especially in fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.

    Kant's major work, the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781), aimed to bring reason together with experience and to move beyond what he took to be failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. He hoped to end an age of speculation where objects outside experience were seen to support what he saw as futile theories, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.



    René Descartes (1596 ? 1650)

    2013年11月23日 | 哲学

    René Descartes (French: [??ne deka?t]; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 ? 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed The Father of Modern Philosophy, and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments. Descartes's influence in mathematics is equally apparent; the Cartesian coordinate system ? allowing reference to a point in space as a set of numbers, and allowing algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two-dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations) ? was named after him. He is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry, crucial to the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. Descartes was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution and has been described as an example of genius. He refused to accept the authority of previous philosophers and also refused to accept the obviousness of his own senses.





    2013年11月22日 | 宗教




    2013年11月21日 | 医療

    Menopause refers to the time of cessation of a woman's reproductive ability.

    Menopause literally means the "end of monthly cycles" (the end of monthly periods or menstruation), from the Greek word pausis (cessation) and the root men- (month). Menopause is an event that typically occurs in women in midlife, during their late 40s or early 50s, and it signals the end of the fertile phase of a woman's life. In addition to being defined by the state of the uterus and the absence of menstrual flow, menopause can also be described as the permanent cessation of the primary functions of the ovaries: the ripening and release of ova and the release of hormones that cause both the creation of the uterine lining, and the subsequent shedding of the uterine lining (a.k.a. the menses or the period).

    This transition from a potentially reproductive to a non-reproductive state is the result of changes in female hormonal production by the ovaries. This transition is normally not sudden or abrupt, tends to occur over a period of years, and is a consequence of biological aging. For some women, the accompanying signs and effects that can occur during the menopause transition years can significantly disrupt their daily activities and sense of well-being.



    "Take Five"

    2013年11月20日 | Jazz

    "Take Five" is a jazz piece written by Paul Desmond and performed by The Dave Brubeck Quartet on their 1959 album "Time Out". Recorded at Columbia's 30th Street Studios in New York City on June 25, July 1, and August 18, 1959, this piece became one of the group's best-known records, famous for its distinctive, catchy saxophone melody and use of the unusual quintuple (5/4) time, from which its name is derived. While "Take Five" was not the first jazz composition to use this meter, it was one of the first in the United States to achieve mainstream significance, reaching number five on Billboard's Adult Contemporary Singles chart. "Take Five" was re-recorded and performed live multiple times by The Dave Brubeck Quartet throughout the group's career.




    2013年11月19日 | 

    Bumps1 Bumps



    2013年11月18日 | 世界歴史

    Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that traces its origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of masons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of freemasonry, its gradal system, retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of apprentice, journeyman or fellow (now called fellowcraft), and master mason. These are the degrees offered by craft, or blue lodge Freemasonry. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, and are now administered by different bodies than the craft degrees.

    The basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the lodge. The lodges are usually supervised and governed at the regional level (usually coterminous with either a state, province, or national border) by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient. There is no international, world-wide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Each Grand Lodge is independent, and they do not necessarily recognise each other as being legitimate.



    Charlotte Maria Church

    2013年11月17日 | 

    Charlotte Maria Church (born Charlotte Maria Reed; 21 February 1986) is a Welsh singer-songwriter, actress and television presenter. She rose to fame in childhood as a classical singer before branching into pop music in 2005. By 2007, she had sold more than 10 million records worldwide including over 5 million in the United States. In 2010 she was reported to be worth as much as 11m (though one 2003 report quoted her worth at £25m). She hosted a Channel 4 chat show titled The Charlotte Church Show. Church released her first album in five years, titled Back to Scratch, on 17 October 2010. Church has a soprano vocal range.




    伊藤 若冲, 1716?1800

    2013年11月17日 | 

    Itō Jakuchū (伊藤 若冲, 1716?1800) was a Japanese painter of the mid-Edo period when Japan had closed its doors to the outside world. Many of his paintings concern traditionally Japanese subjects, particularly chickens and other birds. Many of his otherwise traditional works display a great degree of experimentation with perspective, and with other very modern stylistic elements.

    Compared to Soga Shōhaku and other exemplars of the mid-Edo period eccentric painters, Jakuchū is said to have been very calm, restrained, and professional. He held strong ties to Zen Buddhist ideals, and was considered a lay brother (koji); but he was also keenly aware of his role within a Kyoto society that was becoming increasingly commercial.

    Itou1 Itou2 Itou