累計1万人の合格実績! 教材・動画すべて無料!


2022年11月10日 16時41分46秒 | ●2022年度2次試験対策

With a height of 3,776 meters, Mt. Fuji is Japan's highest mountain. Though classified as an active volcano, Mt. Fuji last erupted about 300 years ago. Its almost perfect cone shape is world-famous for its beauty and the mountain is a symbol of Japan.

京都は1,000年以上日本の古都だった。よって、京都では金閣寺や清水寺といった日本で最も有名な史跡の数々を訪れることが出来る。金閣寺は西洋では “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion”の名で広く知られる寺だ。清水寺は崖からはみ出す形で建てられており、その広い舞台と木造の支柱で有名だ。
Kyoto was an ancient capital of Japan for over 1,000 years. So, there you can visit some of Japan's most famous historic sites such as Kinkaku Temple and Kiyomizu Temple. Kinkaku Temple is known in the West as “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion.” Kiyomizu Temple is built out over a cliff and is famous for its wide veranda and tall wooden pillars.

Nara was an ancient capital of Japan in the 8th century. So, it has many places of historical interest including Nara Park and Todaiji Temple, in which a large statue of Buddha is located. The city retains a serene traditional atmosphere.

Nikko is a popular tourist site characterized by the elaborately constructed Toshogu Shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate. In Nikko the harmony between nature and man-made beauty is such that there is a famous expression, "Never say kekko (wonderful) until you see Nikko."

Hakone is a popular all-year tourist site because of its many hot-spring resorts, beautiful scenery and comfortable climate. Its easy access from Tokyo, views of Mt. Fuji, and the plentiful facilities in the district also add to its attraction.

Kamakura is about 50 km southwest of Tokyo. From the end of the 12th century through the early 14th century, Kamakura was the seat of the bakufu or feudal military government. The city has many historical and cultural sites and, along with Kyoto and Nara, draws visitors from all over the world.

Meiji Shrine is the largest Shinto shrine in Tokyo. This shrine is dedicated to Emperor Meiji and Empress Shoken, who oversaw Japan's entry into the modern world following the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The shrine buildings are made of Japanese cypress and built in a classic Shinto architectural style that is simple but grand. It is a special oasis in the midst of all the big-city hustle and bustle.

Tokyo Skytree is the world's tallest broadcasting tower in Tokyo. It opened on May 22 in 2012. It is 634 meters tall. With the two observation decks at 350 meters and 450 meters, it lets you enjoy the landscape of Tokyo. At the foot of the Skytree there is "Tokyo Skytree Town," a shopping and entertainment complex that has an aquarium and a planetarium as well as many stores and restaurants.

Todaiji is one of Japan's most famous and historically significant temples, and is a major landmark of Nara. Todaiji was completed in the middle of the 8th century as the head temple of all provincial Buddhist temples of Japan. It houses Japan's largest statue of Buddha (Daibutsu). Also, the Great Buddha's hall of Todaiji is the world's largest wooden structure, even though the present reconstruction of the early 18th century is only two thirds the size of the original.

Horyuji Temple is located in the northern part of Nara Prefecture and it is the oldest wooden structure in the world. Founded in 607 as a center for Buddhism in Japan, Horyuji Temple is one of Japan's most significant gems for the historic architecture, art, and religion. It was from here that Buddhism blossomed and spread throughout the land.

Matsushima is regarded as one of the three most famous scenic locations in Japan. Matsushima, which means Pine Islands, is distinguished by its many small pine-covered islands. The harmony between islands and sea creates breathtaking beauty which is outstanding in any season or weather.

Amanohashidate is regarded as one of the three most famous scenic locations in Japan. Amanohashidate, which means Heavenly Bridge, is a long sandbar lined with pine trees. To see the heavenly bridge, you are supposed to turn your back to the scenery, bend over, and look from between your legs.

Miyajima is regarded as one of the three most famous scenic locations in Japan. Miyajima, which means Shrine Island, is famous for the magnificent Itsukushima Shrine extending over the sea on long pillars. Its large red torii is renowned for the impression it gives of floating on the sea.

Koraku-en in Okayama is one of the three most famous landscape gardens in Japan. Constructed in the Edo period by a local lord, Koraku-en includes tea ceremony houses, ponds, and waterfalls.

Kenroku-en in Kanazawa is one of the three most famous landscape gardens in Japan. Constructed on the site of a local lord's residence, Kenroku-en is well-known for its three landscaped hills and two ponds, and for a stone lantern that stands next to one of the ponds.

Kairaku-en in Mito is one of the three most famous landscape gardens in Japan. Constructed by a local lord as a retreat, Kairaku-en is particularly well-known for its Plum Tree Festival held from February 20 through March 31 when the plum blossoms are at their peak.

Cherry trees bloom brilliantly and lose their flowers in the short span of about two weeks. This evokes a sentimental feeling among Japanese, drawn from an ancient cultural belief, and reminding us of the short, transitory nature of human life. Also, cherry blossoms are regarded as the official signal that spring has come after a long, cold winter, so people are naturally in a cheery mood. Besides, Japanese people like to enjoy “hanami,” or cherry- blossom-viewing parties, with family or friends. These are some of the reasons why Japanese love cherry blossoms in particular.

Japan is a very mountainous island nation. Although its total land area is a little smaller than California, 67% is covered by mountains. Plains account for only 13%. Japan also has 111 of the world's about 1,500 active volcanoes. The number of hot springs has a lot to do with the number of volcanoes. Because Japan has lots of volcanoes, it abounds in natural hot springs.

There are four distinct seasons in Japan; spring, summer, fall and winter. There is also a rainy season between spring and summer. Japan's climate is influenced by summer and winter monsoons, ocean currents and topographical features.

Nihon-teien refers to a landscape garden composed of rocks, trees, ponds, and other naturobjects. This type of garden is designed in accordance with the appearance of nature.

Karesansui is a dry landscape garden mainly composed of rocks and sand. The rocks represent mountains or islands, while the sand represents water.

Gion-matsuri, held in honor of Yasaka Shrine, is one of the three great festivals of Kyoto. Conducted throughout the month of July, it reaches its high point on the 17th with a parade of floats, some of which carry groups of musicians.

Jidai-matsuri, or "Festival of the Ages," is held in honor of Heian Shrine and is one of the three great festivals of Kyoto. The festival is held on October 22, and its highlight is a procession of people dressed in costumes representing various periods of Kyoto's 1,200-year history."

Aoi-matsuri, held in honor of the two Kamo Shrines, is one of the three great festivals of Kyoto. The festival is held on May 15. The name of the festival comes from the leaves of the aoi (hollyhock) plant that are used to decorate the heads of the participants in the procession.

The Meiji Restoration is narrowly defined to refer to the 1867 coup d'etat that overthrew the Tokugawa shogunate, but it more broadly marked the beginning of Japan's modernization. Following the opening of the country to the West in the mid-19th century, Japan had an influx of various foreign things from Western technology to the military draft system to democracy. Japan abolished its feudalistic shogunate system and developed into a constitutional monarchy.

Shogun is usually translated as generalissimo. It was originally a temporary title given by the emperor to the commander-in-chief of an expeditionary army. Later, it developed into the official title given by the emperor to the administrative head of the country. This shogunate system lasted until the mid-19th century.

Sukiyaki is a dish of thinly sliced beef, onions, tofu, and shiitake mushrooms cooked in a pan at the table. Sugar, soy sauce, and sake are added for flavor.

Tempura is seafood and vegetables that are dipped in batter, deep-fried and served with a special sauce.

Traditionally, kaiseki-ryori is the meal served prior to a tea ceremony. The ingredients are fresh, seasonal, and carefully prepared without adornment. Today, kaiseki-ryori can be enjoyed at restaurants specializing in these dishes. As a kind of Japanese haute cuisine, kaiseki-ryori is usually very expensive.

Osechi-ryori are special dishes for the New Year holidays. A variety of ingredients such as fish, black beans, rolled kelp, and vegetables are prepared and arranged artfully in a set of layered lacquer boxes.