2020年度第2次口述試験<外国語訳><プレゼンテーション>予想問題 60 題

2020年09月02日 22時38分30秒 | ●2019年度 受験対策

2020年度第2次口述試験<外国語訳><プレゼンテーション>予想問題 60 題

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第2次口述試験<外国語訳><プレゼンテーション>予想問題 60 題
(1) What is Japan’s climate like?
There are four distinct seasons in Japan; spring, summer, fall and winter. There is also a rainy season between spring and summer. Japan’s climate is influenced by summer and winter monsoons, ocean currents and topographical features.

(1) 日本の気候はどのようなものか。

(2) How big is Japan?
Japan’s land area is about 378,000 km2, which is slightly smaller than the state of California in the United States or slightly larger than the entire size of Germany. Japan’s archipelago stretches some 3,500 km (2,170 miles) between the northernmost and southernmost points.

(2) 日本の大きさはどれくらいか。
日本の陸域面積は約 378,000 km2 で、米国のカリフォルニア州よりも少し小さく、ドイツの全面積よりも少し大きい。日本列島は北端から南端まで約 3,500 km (2,170 マイル)伸びている。

(3) Please tell me about the topographical features of Japan.
Japan is a very mountainous island nation. Although its total land area is a little smaller than California, 67% is covered by mountains. Plains account for only 13%. Japan also has 111 of the world’s 1,500 active volcanoes.

(3) 日本の地形的な特徴について教えてほしい。
日本は非常に山がちな島国である。日本の全陸域面積がカリフォルニアよりも少し小さいのに、67%が山地である。平野はわずか 13%である。また、世界に 1,500 個ある活火山のうち 111 個が日本にある。

(4) Why are there many volcanoes in Japan?
It is because Japan is located on the circum-Pacific earthquake belt. There are 111 active volcanoes in Japan. It is said that about 7.4% of the world’s 1,500 active volcanoes are concentrated in Japan.

(4) なぜ日本にはたくさんの火山があるのか。
それは日本が環太平洋地震帯の一部に位置しているからだ。日本には 111 の活火山がある。世界にある 1,500 の活火山の約 7.4 パーセントが日本に集まっていると言われている。

(5) Why are there so many hot springs in Japan?
The number of hot springs has a lot to do with the number of volcanoes. Because Japan has lots of volcanoes, it abounds in natural hot springs.

(5) なぜ日本には非常に多くの温泉があるのか。

(6) Why are there many earthquakes in Japan?
The Japanese archipelago is situated along the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Squeezed in under these plates are the Pacific Plate and the Philippines Sea Plate, which makes the landforms unstable, causing a lot of earthquakes in and around Japan.

(6) なぜ日本は地震が多いのか。

(7) What is typhoon?
Typhoons, or Taifu, are violent tropical storms which often strike Japan from early summer through autumn.

(7) 台風とは何か。

(8) What is tsuyu?
Tsuyu is the early summer rainy season which begins about the middle of June and lasts about a month. This rain is needed by the farmers at rice-planting time.

(8) 梅雨とは何か。

(9) What is the charm of spring in Japan?
In early May, trees are covered in fresh green. Above all, spring is the season when cherry blossoms bloom so beautifully, and people enjoy “hanami,” or Cherry-Blossom-Viewing picnics, under the trees. Also, since it is neither too hot nor too cold, spring is one of the best seasons to travel.

(9) 日本の春の魅力は何か。

(10) What is the charm of summer in Japan?
If you are interested in outdoor activities, you can enjoy swimming in the sea or climbing mountains. You can also enjoy viewing fireworks displays and Bon dances, throughout Japan in summer.

(10) 日本の夏の魅力は何か。

(11) What is the charm of autumn in Japan?
Because it is neither too hot nor too cold, it is one of the best seasons to travel. Besides, a lot of delicious food including seafood and vegetables in season is available in autumn. Also, you can enjoy viewing the beautifully changing colors of autumnal leaves in the mountain.

(11) 日本の秋の魅力は何か。

(12) What is the charm of winter in Japan?
You can enjoy skiing and snowboarding in ski resorts such as Niseko in Hokkaido. Its powdery snow is regarded as the best in Japan. Also, I can recommend that you go to Zaozan, on the border of Miyagi and Yamagata Prefectures. This place is famous for its winter landscape of ice-covered trees.

(12) 日本の冬の魅力は何か。

(13) Who do you think is the most important person in Japanese history?
I think it’s Tokugawa Ieyasu, who lived from 1543 to 1616. He was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate, which was to maintain effective rule over Japan from 1600 through 1867. With his sweeping victory in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu became the most powerful warrior leader in Japan, and in 1603 he assumed the title of the shogun, thus succeeding in the reunification of Japan. Ieyasu established the “bakuhan”(literally, shogunate-domain) system, which was the political, economic, and social foundation of the entire Edo period.

(13) 日本の歴史の中で最も重要な人は誰だと思うか。
それは徳川家康だと思う。彼は 1543 年から 1616 年まで生きた人だ。彼は徳川幕府を創設しその初代将軍だった。幕府は 1600 年から 1867 年まで日本を効果的に支配することを続けることになった。1600年の関ヶ原の戦いで大勝した家康は日本で最も力のある戦国大名となった。そして 1603 年に将軍に就任し、よって日本を再び統一することに成功した。家康は幕藩体制を作った。それは江戸時代全体の政治的、経済的、社会的基盤であった。

(14) What do you think is the most important historical event in Japan?
It was the Meiji Restoration. It is narrowly defined to refer to the 1867 coup d’état thatoverthrew the Tokugawa shogunate, but it more broadly marked the beginning of Japan’s modernization. Following the opening of the country to the West in the mid-19th century, Japan had an influx of various foreign things from Western technology to the military draft system to democracy. Japan abolished its feudalistic shogunate system and developed into a constitutional monarchy.

(14) 日本で最も重要な歴史的な出来事は何だと思うか。
それは明治維新だ。明治維新は狭義には徳川幕府を倒した 1867 年のクーデターである。しかしもっと広義には日本の近代化の始まりを記したものである。19 世紀半ばに西洋に門戸を開放してから、日本には、西洋の科学技術から徴兵制、民主主義にいたるまで外国の様々なものがたくさん入ってきた。日本は封建的な幕府を廃して、立憲君主国に発展していったのである。

(15) Who do you think is the most influential foreigner in Japanese history?
I think it is Commodore Matthew C. Perry, who used “gunboat diplomacy” to make Japan accept and sign “the Treaty of Peace and Amity” (or “Treaty of Kanagawa”) in 1854. This led to the opening of two ports (Shimoda and Hakodate) to American whaling ships. This also meant the end of Japan’s 220-year “sakoku” (seclusion) policy and later Japan’s signing of“The Treaty of Amity and Commerce” under conditions favorable to the U.S. in 1858. These historical events marked the burgeoning Western influence on Japan.

(15) 日本の歴史の中で最も影響力のあった外国人は誰だと思うか。
マシュー・C・ペリー提督だと思う。彼は「砲艦外交」を利用して、1854 年に日本に「和親条約」(神奈川条約)を受け入れさせ、締結させた。このことによって2つの港(下田と箱館)がアメリカの捕鯨船に開港したのである。このことはまた、日本の 220 年間にわたる鎖国政策が終わったことと、のち 1858 年に最恵国待遇の条件で日本がアメリカと「修好通商条約」を締結することを意味した。これらの歴史的な出来事は、西洋の日本におけるますます大きくなっていく影響をしるしたのである。

(16) Please explain the Meiji Restoration. Why was it so important in Japanese history?
Japan realized the need to establish a modern state to cope with powerful Western countries, once it opened its doors to the world in 1854 after 220 years of national isolation. As a result of strong demands from imperial loyalists of the lower samurai class, the last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu stepped down in 1867, and Emperor Meiji came to the throne. Thus, the Meiji Restoration took place in 1868, which included a series of drastic political, economic and cultural changes. Seeking to “enrich the nation and strengthen the military,” the new government promoted industrialization and modernization, through abolishing the feudal system and introducing Western culture and political systems.

(16) 明治維新を説明せよ。日本の歴史の中で明治維新はなぜそれほどまでに重要なのか。
1854 年に日本が 220 年間の鎖国のあとでいったん開国すると、日本は強い西洋諸国に対応するため近代国家を作る必要を悟った。武士階級の下層の勤王派からの強い要求の結果、最後の将軍となった徳川慶喜は 1867 年に将軍職を退き、明治天皇が即位した。このようにして明治維新は 1868 年に起こった。明治維新には一連の抜本的な政治的、経済的、また文化的改革が含まれる。「富国強兵」を目指して新政府は、封建制度を廃止し、西洋文化や西洋の政治制度を導入することによって、産業化と近代化を促進したのである。

(17) When did Japan end its policy of national isolation? How did it happen and what changes it brought to Japan?
In 1853, Commodore Perry and his squadron of American ships appeared in Uraga Bay in Kanagawa to press for the opening the country. At first, powerful Satsuma (now Kagoshima Prefecture) and Choshu (now Yamaguchi Prefecture) domains were opposed to the idea of giving up the national isolation policy. With their growing knowledge of the Western power, however, they decided to switch their allegiance toward the drive to open up the country. On the other hand, the masses were suffering under inflation, and riots and attacks on shops of wealthy merchants occurred in various regions, weakening the foundations of the bakuhan system. This led in 1867 to the relinquishing of power by the 15th Tokugawa shogun, Yoshinobu, to the imperial court. A decree was made which established a government centered around the emperor, bringing to an end the long-lasting feudal system, and the Meiji period came into being.

(17) 日本はいつその鎖国政策を終わらせたのか。それはどのようにして起こったのか。またそれは日本に
1853 年にペリー提督とそのアメリカ艦隊は神奈川の浦賀湾に現れ、日本の開国を強く要求した。初めは勢力のある薩摩藩(現在の鹿児島県)と長州藩(現在の山口県)は鎖国政策をやめる考えに反対した。しかしながら、西洋列強をだんだんと知るようになると、2藩は支持を切り替えて、日本を開国する運動を支持するようになった。その一方、大衆は物価騰貴のもとで苦しみ、一揆や富裕な商人の店を襲うことが様々な地方で起き、幕藩体制の基盤が弱体化することになった。このことによって、15 代将軍慶喜は権力を朝廷に譲った。天皇を中心とする政府を樹立する命令が下り、長い封建制度が終わって、明治時代が始まった。

(18) What was the Edo period like?
The Edo Period is the 260-year span following Tokugawa Ieyasu’s defeat of his principal rivals in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and the establishment of a shogunate government in Edo (now Tokyo) in 1603. This period saw the reinforcement of a status system known as “shi-noko-sho” (warrior-peasant-artisan-merchant), which placed the warrior in the top social class, and externally, the establishment of a policy of national isolation and the prohibition of Christianity.

(18) 江戸時代はどんな時代だったのか。
江戸時代とは、1600 年の関ヶ原の戦いで徳川家康が主たるライバルを滅ぼし、1603 年、江戸(現在の東京)に幕府を開いてからの 260 年にわたる期間のことである。この時代には、武士を一番上の社会階級とする「士農工商」として知られる身分制度を設け、対外的には、鎖国政策を講じ、キリスト教を禁止した。

(19) What was the Meiji period like?
This period saw the transfer of power from the Tokugawa shogunate to the imperial court, and the transition from a system of government based on the shogunate and “han” domains to a unified state. This was also the period that witnessed the transition to a capitalist economy and the establishment of a modern Japanese state system.

(19) 明治時代はどんな時代だったのか。

(20) What is the difference between emperor and shogun?
Shogun was at the top of samurai warriors. The title, shogun, was given by the emperor. The term shogun came to be commonly used with the establishment of the government called bakufu, which controlled the land and people of the nation for about 700 years until the middle of the 19th century. The emperor of Japan is believed to have direct lineage from the Sun Goddess of Japanese mythology. Japanese people refer to the current emperor as Ten-no, and almost never use his actual name. Ten-no doesn’t have any political power whatsoever.

(20) 天皇と将軍の違いは何か。
武士の一番上にいるのが将軍である。将軍という称号は天皇によって与えられた。将軍ということばは、幕府と呼ばれる政府が創設されるとともに一般に使われるようになった。幕府は国と人民を 19 世紀の半ばまで約 700 年にわたって支配した。日本の天皇は日本の神話の太陽神の直系であると信じられている。日本人は今の天皇を天皇と言い、天皇の実際の名を使うことはほとんど全くない。天皇は政治権力は全く持たない。

(21) What is sakoku?
Sakoku was Japan’s policy of isolation from the 17th to the mid-19th centuries. Adopted by the Edo government for security from European countries, the policy also ensured control over regional lords by depriving them of their ability to conduct foreign trade.

(21) 鎖国とは何か。
鎖国は 17 世紀から 19 世紀半ばまでの日本の鎖国政策であった。ヨーロッパ諸国から安全に国を守るため、江戸幕府によって採用され、鎖国政策はまた地方の大名が外国貿易を行うことをできないようにすることによって、彼らに対する支配権を確実なものにしたのである。

(22) What is the attraction of Mt. Fuji?
With a height of 3,776 meters, Mt. Fuji is Japan’s highest mountain. Though classified as an active volcano, Mt. Fuji last erupted about 300 years ago. Its almost perfect cone shape is world-famous for its beauty and the mountain is a symbol of Japan.

(22) 富士山の魅力とは何か。
高さが 3,776 メートルで、富士山は日本で最も高い山である。富士山は活火山に分類されているが、最後に噴火したのは約 300 年前である。ほぼ完璧な円錐形をした富士山は、その美しさで世界に知られており、日本の象徴である。

(23) I want to go to Nikko. Could you tell me something about Nikko?
Nikko is a popular tourist site characterized by the elaborately constructed Toshogu Shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate. In Nikko the harmony between nature and man-made beauty is such that there is a famous expression, “Never say kekko (wonderful) until you see Nikko.”

(23) 日光に行きたいのだが、日光について何か話してほしい。

(24) I want to go to Kamakura. Could you tell me something about Kamakura?
Kamakura is about 50 km southwest of Tokyo. From the end of the 12th century through the early 14th century, Kamakura was the seat of the bakufu or feudal military government. The city has many historical and cultural sites and, along with Kyoto and Nara, draws visitors from all over the world.

(24) 鎌倉に行きたいのだが、鎌倉について何か教えてほしい。
鎌倉は東京の約 50 キロ南西にある。12 世紀の終わりから 14 世紀初頭まで鎌倉は鎌倉幕府の所在地だった。鎌倉には多くの名所旧跡があり、京都、奈良とともに世界中から訪問者を惹き付けている。

(25) I want to visit a Japanese garden. Where would you recommend?
I would recommend that you visit one of the three most famous landscape gardens of Japan. They are (1) Koraku-en in Okayama, Okayama Prefecture, (2) Kenroku-en in Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture, and (3) Kairaku-en in Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture.

(25) 日本庭園を訪れてみたい。どこがいいか。

(26) Please explain Todai-ji Temple.
Todaiji is one of Japan’s most famous and historically significant temples, and is a major landmark of Nara. Todaiji was completed in the middle of the 8th century as the head temple of all provincial Buddhist temples of Japan. It houses Japan’s largest statue of Buddha (Daibutsu). Also, the Great Buddha’s hall of Todaiji is the world’s largest wooden structure, even though the present reconstruction of the early 18th century is only two thirds the size of the original.

(26) 東大寺について説明してほしい。
東大寺は、日本で最も有名で歴史的にも重要な寺院のひとつであり、奈良の主要な目印となる建物だ。東大寺は8世紀の中頃に国分寺の総本山として完成した。東大寺は日本最大の仏像(大仏)を安置している。大仏殿は世界最大の木造建造物だ。もっとも、18 世紀初頭に建造された現在の大仏殿は創建時の3分の2の大きさしかないが。

(27) Please explain Meiji Shrine.
Meiji Shrine is the largest Shinto shrine in Tokyo. This shrine is dedicated to Emperor Meiji and Empress Shoken, who oversaw Japan’s entry into the modern world following the Meiji Restoration of 1868. The shrine buildings are made of Japanese cypress and built in a classic Shinto architectural style that is simple but grand. It is a special oasis in the midst of all the big-city hustle and bustle.

(27) 明治神宮について説明してほしい。
明治神宮は東京最大の神社である。この神社は明治天皇と昭憲皇后を祀っている。二人は 1868 年の明治維新についで、日本の近代化が始まるのを目撃した。神社は檜で造られており、簡素ではあるが壮大な古典的な神道様式で建てられている。明治神宮は大都会の喧噪のど真ん中におけるオアシスである。

(28) I hear that there are many hot-spring resorts in Japan. Please recommend one of them.
If you are staying in Tokyo, I would recommend Hakone hot-spring resort. Hakone is a popular all-year tourist site because of its many hot-spring resorts, beautiful scenery and comfortable climate. Its easy access from Tokyo, views of Mt. Fuji, and the plentiful facilities in the district also add to its attraction.

(28) 日本には多くの温泉地があるそうだが、どれか推薦してほしい。

(29) Where would you recommend I visit for sightseeing in Tokyo?
I would recommend Tokyo Tower in Minato Ward. Having been built in 1958 and molded after the Eiffel Tower in Paris, this 333m structure is a beloved landmark in the city’s landscape. The tower boasts two observatories, both of which offer spectacular, panoramic views of Tokyo.

(29) 東京で観光するのに、どこがお勧めか。
港区にある東京タワーをお勧めする。パリのエッフェル塔を模して 1958 年に完成したこの 333 メートルの建物は、誰からも親しまれる東京の目印となっている所だ。タワーの二つの展望台からは東京の壮観な全景を見渡せる。

(30) I want to take a day trip from Tokyo. Where would you recommend I go?
I would recommend that you go to Atami. Atami is one of the largest hot-spring resorts in Japan. The city has more than five hundred hotels and inns. Atami is about 100 km southwest of Tokyo, so it is easily accessible from Tokyo.

(30) 東京から日帰り旅行をしたいと思う。どこがお勧めか。
熱海に行くことを勧める。熱海は日本でも最大規模の温泉地である。市には 500 を超えるホテルや旅館がある。熱海は東京の南西約 100 キロに位置しているので、東京からは気軽に行くことが出来る。

(31) Where would you recommend I visit for sightseeing in Kyoto?
Kyoto was an ancient capital of Japan for over 1,000 years. So, there you can visit some of Japan’s most famous historic sites such as Kinkaku Temple and Kiyomizu Temple. Kinkaku Temple is known in the West as “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion.” Kiyomizu Temple is built out over a cliff and is famous for its wide veranda and tall wooden pillars.

(31) 京都で観光するのにどこがお勧めか。
京都は 1,000 年以上日本の古都だった。よって、京都では金閣寺や清水寺といった日本で最も有名な史跡の数々を訪れることが出来る。金閣寺は西洋では “The Temple of the Golden Pavilion”の名で広く知られる寺だ。清水寺は崖からはみ出す形で建てられており、その広い舞台と木造の支柱で有名だ。

(32) Where would you recommend I visit for sightseeing in Nara?
Nara was an ancient capital of Japan in the 8th century. So, it has many places of historical interest including Nara Park and Todaiji Temple, in which a large statue of Buddha is located. The city retains a serene traditional atmosphere.

(32) 奈良で観光するのにどこがお勧めか。

(33) I want to see a World Heritage site. Which site would you recommend?
I would recommend Horyuji Temple located in the northern part of Nara Prefecture. It is the oldest wooden structure in the world. Founded in 607 as a center for Buddhism in Japan, Horyuji Temple is one of Japan’s most significant gems for the historic architecture, art, and religion. It was from here that Buddhism blossomed and spread throughout the land.

(33) 世界遺産を見たいと思う。何がお勧めか。
奈良県北部にある法隆寺がお勧めだ。法隆寺は世界最古の木造建築だ。法隆寺は、日本における仏教の中心的存在として 607 年に建立され、その歴史的建築様式、芸術、そして宗教のために、我が国で最重要なものの一つだ。仏教が、この国じゅうで盛んとなり広がったのは、この法隆寺こそが始まりであった。

(34) I am on a budget tour. What overnight accommodations would you recommend I stay at?
I would recommend Minshuku. It is a private home that offers overnight accommodations.Minshuku is basically a small inn, and as such it is certified by the public health office.

(34) 安く旅行したいと思っている。どのような宿泊施設に泊まればよいだろうか。

(35) I want to buy some traditional Japanese souvenirs. What would you recommend?
If you are looking for traditional Japanese things, the Oriental Bazaar at Harajuku in Tokyo or souvenir shops at Asakusa in Tokyo are recommended. They offer a wide range of traditional Japanese things, such as fans, paper lanterns for room decorations, kimono-clad dolls, paper dolls, and happi coats.

(35) いくつか伝統的な日本のおみやげを買いたい。何がいいか。

(36) I want to buy some modern Japanese things. What would you recommend?
Go to an electronics store and buy a digital camera, a portable game machine, or any othercomputer-based product. If you are in Tokyo, such stores can be found in areas such as Shinjuku, Ikebukuro, and Akihabara. If you are in Osaka, you should go to Nipponbashi. In any large city, it is easy to find one or two electronics stores in the downtown area.

(36) 現代的な日本の物をいくつか買いたい。何かお勧めのものがあるか。

(37) What would you do if one of the tourists you are guiding got lost and didn't come back to your bus?
Well, that’s a pretty serious situation. First of all, I would find out whether he or she is carrying a cell phone and what their number is. If so, I would try to contact them and arrange to meet them at a nearby landmark. If they weren’t, I would ask the other members of the group to stay by or in the bus for a short while, while I try to look for the person myself. If time passed and I was still unsuccessful, I would contact the police.

(37) あなたがガイドしている旅行者の一人が道に迷ってバスに戻ってこないとしたら、あなたならどうするか。

(38) What should I do when an earthquake occurs?
In Japan, it is commonly advised that we should disconnect the gas to the stove in the kitchen, open the door, and get under a table.

(38) 地震が起きたらどうすればよいか。

(39) On what occasions do Japanese go to Buddhist temples?
Very few Japanese go to temples except for funerals or hatsumode, the first visit paid on New Year holidays. However, temples in Kyoto and Nara, such as Kiyomizu Temple and Todaiji Temple, are always crowded with tourists.

(39) どんな機会に日本人はお寺に行くのか。

(40) On what occasions do Japanese go to Shinto shrines?
Japanese visit Shinto shrines on New Year’s Day to pray for good health and happiness during the coming year, and on special occasions such as after the birth of a child, or to celebrate shichi-go-san. People also visit shrines to pray for success in passing school entrance examinations, and to obtain good luck charms. Although some weddings are conducted according to Shinto rites, couples usually do not go to shrines to take their marriage vows.

(40) 日本人はどういうときに神社へ行くのか。

(41) What is the difference between temples and shrines?
Temples in Japan are Buddhist temples and they are called “tera” in Japanese. On the other hand, shrines are Shinto shrines and they are called “jinja” in Japanese. At most Buddhist temples, there are Buddhist statues in the main hall. At Shinto shrines there are torii gateways at the entrance. A torii consists of two upright posts connected at the top by two horizontal crosspieces.

(41) 寺と神社の違いは何か。

(42) On what occasions do Japanese wear kimono?
Today, kimonos are worn only on special occasions, such as graduation ceremonies, Comingof-Age Day ceremonies, weddings, or celebration of New Year’s Day. These days, fewer and fewer people wear kimono. One big reason is that they are very expensive. Another reason is that, when wearing a kimono, it’s difficult to move around.

(42) 日本人はどういう時に着物を着るのか。

(43) On what occasions do Japanese wear yukata?
We do see many young women in the informal cotton kimono called yukata, especially at summer festivals.

(43) 日本人はどういう時に浴衣を着るのか。

(44) What is the difference between Kabuki and Noh? Where can I see Kabuki and Noh?
Kabuki is a traditional stage drama performed exclusively by men to the accompaniment of songs and music. It is characterized by a combination of rhythmical words, dancing, elaborate costumes, and stage sets. On the other hand, Noh is a classical stage art performed mostly by men to the accompaniment of recitative chants called yokyoku and an orchestra consisting of a flute and three types of drums. It is characterized by symbolic, highly stylized acting, and elaborate masks. In Tokyo, you can usually see Kabuki at Kabukiza in Ginza, and Noh at Kokuritsu-Nohgakudo in Shibuya.

(44) 歌舞伎と能の違いは何か。歌舞伎と能はどこで見ることができるか。

(45) What is the difference between Geisha and Maiko? Where can I see Geisha or Maiko?
Geisha is a kimono-clad female entertainer who is trained in the traditional arts, singing, dancing, and conversation and who serves as a party companion and hostess. On the other\ hand, a maiko is an apprentice geisha. A maiko trains under the strict guidance of specialists for several years in the fields of traditional dance, song, and the shamisen, a three-stringed Japanese instrument similar to a banjo. You can see some of them if you stroll in the Gion district of Kyoto in the afternoon and evening.

(45) 芸者と舞妓の違いは何か。芸者と舞妓はどこで見ることができるか。

(46) On what occasions are hanko or Japanese personal seals necessary?
Japanese people use three types of hanko, or personal seals. One is called jitsuin, or a registered seal. An impression of the seal is officially registered at the local government office. This seal is used only for official documents and important transactions. Mitomein, or a cheap, ready-made seal, is mainly used when they receive registered mail. Ginkoin is a seal registered at a bank, and is used when they make withdrawals without using a cash card.

(46) 日本の判子はどのような時に必要か。

(47) What is Maneki-neko?
Maneki-neko is a statue of a cat beckoning passers-by. The statue is often found in restaurant sand shops and is displayed as a charm to attract customers.

(47) 招き猫とは何か。

(48) What is higan?
Higan are the weeks centering around the vernal equinox and autumnal equinox. During these periods, Buddhist temples hold special services and people pay their respects at their ancestors’ graves.

(48) 彼岸とは何か。
彼岸は、春分と秋分を中心にしたそれぞれ 1 週間の期間である。彼岸には、寺で特別な法事が営まれ、人々は先祖の墓で故人に敬意を表す。

(49) What is setsubun?
Setsubun is the day before the first day of spring according to the lunar calendar, usually February 2 or 3. Bean throwing ceremonies are held in homes, shrines, and temples in the belief that this will bring in good fortune and drive away evil spirits.

(49) 節分とは何か。
節分は、太陰暦でいう春の初日の前日であり、普通、2 月 2 日か 3 日である。豆まきによって、幸運がもたらされ邪気が追い払われると信じて、家庭、神社、寺では豆まきの儀式が行われる。

(50) What is the difference between shogi and go?
Shogi is a traditional chess-like game played between two people. As in chess, pieces may be captured, but unlike in chess those pieces may be used by the captor. The game ends with the checkmate of an opponent’s king. On the other hand, Go, or igo, is a game of strategy played between two people. Black and white stones are placed alternately on a board in an attempt to capture the other player’s stones by surrounding them. The game ends when the board is filled with stones, or the possibilities for gaining territory are exhausted.

(50) 将棋と碁の違いは何か。
将棋は、2 人で行うチェスに似た伝統的ゲームである。チェスと同様、相手の駒を捕ることはできるが、チェスと違い、捕り手は捕った駒を使ってもよい。将棋は相手の王が動けなくなると終わりとなる。一方、碁、または囲碁は 2 人で行う、戦略で勝負が決まるゲームである。相手の石を囲んで捕獲する目的で、黒と白の石を交互に碁盤の上に置いていく。碁盤が石で埋め尽くされたとき、もしくは、領域を獲得できる可能性が尽きた時に、ゲームは終わりとなる。

(51) What is the difference between manzai and rakugo?
Manzai is a comic routine. Usually performed by two or three entertainers in a variety program on TV, manzai tends to be slapstick in nature. On the other hand, Rakugo is a funny story usually told by a professional storyteller at a variety hall or on TV. Themes are usually humorous incidents from daily life in the Edo period.

(51) 漫才と落語の違いは何か。
漫才は、滑稽なおきまりの演芸である。漫才は、普通、テレビのバラエティーショーで 2 人、あるいは 3 人の芸人によって演じられるもので、本質的にドタバタ調になりがちである。一方、落語は、普通、プロの語り手によって演芸場やテレビで語られる滑稽な話である。主題は、普通、江戸時代の日常生活からの滑稽な出来事である。


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