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THE CONSTITUTION OF JAPAN(後半)

2017-06-18 23:51:29 | 教育 子育て

Article 51. Members of both Houses shall not be held liable outside the House for speeches, debates or votes cast inside the House.

Article 52. An ordinary session of the Diet shall be convoked once per year.

Article 53. The Cabinet may determine to convoke extraordinary sessions of the Diet. When a quarter or more of the total members of either House makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such convocation.

Article 54. When the House of Representatives is dissolved, there must be a general election of members of the House of Representatives within forty (40) days from the date of dissolution, and the Diet must be convoked within thirty (30) days from the date of the election.
When the House of Representatives is dissolved, the House of Councillors is closed at the same time. However, the Cabinet may in time of national emergency convoke the House of Councillors in emergency session.
Measures taken at such session as mentioned in the proviso of the preceding paragraph shall be provisional and shall become null and void unless agreed to by the House of Representatives within a period of ten (10) days after the opening of the next session of the Diet.

Article 55. Each House shall judge disputes related to qualifications of its members. However, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a resolution by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.

Article 56. Business cannot be transacted in either House unless one-third or more of total membership is present.
All matters shall be decided, in each House, by a majority of those present, except as elsewhere provided in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer shall decide the issue.

Article 57. Deliberation in each House shall be public. However, a secret meeting may be held where a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present passes a resolution therefor.
Each House shall keep a record of proceedings. This record shall be published and given general circulation, excepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to require secrecy.
Upon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, votes of the members on any matter shall be recorded in the minutes.

Article 58. Each House shall select its own president and other officials.
Each House shall establish its rules pertaining to meetings, proceedings and internal discipline, and may punish members for disorderly conduct. However, in order to expel a member, a majority of two-thirds or more of those members present must pass a resolution thereon.

Article 59. A bill becomes a law on passage by both Houses, except as otherwise provided by the Constitution.
A bill which is passed by the House of Representatives, and upon which the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, becomes a law when passed a second time by the House of Representatives by a majority of two-thirds or more of the members present.
The provision of the preceding paragraph does not preclude the House of Representatives from calling for the meeting of a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law.
Failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within sixty (60) days after receipt of a bill passed by the House of Representatives, time in recess excepted, may be determined by the House of Representatives to constitute a rejection of the said bill by the House of Councillors.

Article 60. The budget must first be submitted to the House of Representatives.
Upon consideration of the budget, when the House of Councillors makes a decision different from that of the House of Representatives, and when no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or in the case of failure by the House of Councillors to take final action within thirty (30) days, the period of recess excluded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the House of Representatives, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Article 61. The second paragraph of the preceding article applies also to the Diet approval required for the conclusion of treaties.

Article 62. Each House may conduct investigations in relation to government, and may demand the presence and testimony of witnesses, and the production of records.

Article 63. The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State may, at any time, appear in either House for the purpose of speaking on bills, regardless of whether they are members of the House or not. They must appear when their presence is required in order to give answers or explanations.

Article 64. The Diet shall set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Houses for the purpose of trying those judges against whom removal proceedings have been instituted.
Matters relating to impeachment shall be provided by law.
CHAPTER V

THE CABINET

Article 65. Executive power shall be vested in the Cabinet.

Article 66. The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister, who shall be its head, and other Ministers of State, as provided for by law.
The Prime Minister and other Ministers of State must be civilians.
The Cabinet, in the exercise of executive power, shall be collectively responsible to the Diet.

Article 67. The Prime Minister shall be designated from among the members of the Diet by a resolution of the Diet. This designation shall precede all other business.
If the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors disagree and if no agreement can be reached even through a joint committee of both Houses, provided for by law, or the House of Councillors fails to make designation within ten (10) days, exclusive of the period of recess, after the House of Representatives has made designation, the decision of the House of Representatives shall be the decision of the Diet.

Article 68. The Prime Minister shall appoint the Ministers of State. However, a majority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the Diet.
The Prime Minister may remove the Ministers of State as he chooses.

Article 69. If the House of Representatives passes a non-confidence resolution, or rejects a confidence resolution, the Cabinet shall resign en masse, unless the House of Representatives is dissolved within ten (10) days.

Article 70. When there is a vacancy in the post of Prime Minister, or upon the first convocation of the Diet after a general election of members of the House of Representatives, the Cabinet shall resign en masse.

Article 71. In the cases mentioned in the two preceding articles, the Cabinet shall continue its functions until the time when a new Prime Minister is appointed.

Article 72. The Prime Minister, representing the Cabinet, submits bills, reports on general national affairs and foreign relations to the Diet and exercises control and supervision over various administrative branches.

Article 73. The Cabinet, in addition to other general administrative functions, shall perform the following functions:
Administer the law faithfully; conduct affairs of state.
Manage foreign affairs.
Conclude treaties. However, it shall obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subsequent approval of the Diet.
Administer the civil service, in accordance with standards established by law.
Prepare the budget, and present it to the Diet.
Enact cabinet orders in order to execute the provisions of this Constitution and of the law. However, it cannot include penal provisions in such cabinet orders unless authorized by such law.
Decide on general amnesty, special amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprieve, and restoration of rights.

Article 74. All laws and cabinet orders shall be signed by the competent Minister of State and countersigned by the Prime Minister.

Article 75. The Ministers of State, during their tenure of office, shall not be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister. However, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby.
CHAPTER VI

JUDICIARY

Article 76. The whole judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as are established by law.
No extraordinary tribunal shall be established, nor shall any organ or agency of the Executive be given final judicial power.
All judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this Constitution and the laws.

Article 77. The Supreme Court is vested with the rule-making power under which it determines the rules of procedure and of practice, and of matters relating to attorneys, the internal discipline of the courts and the administration of judicial affairs.
Public procurators shall be subject to the rule-making power of the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court may delegate the power to make rules for inferior courts to such courts.

Article 78. Judges shall not be removed except by public impeachment unless judicially declared mentally or physically incompetent to perform official duties. No disciplinary action against judges shall be administered by any executive organ or agency.

Article 79. The Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Judge and such number of judges as may be determined by law; all such judges excepting the Chief Judge shall be appointed by the Cabinet.
The appointment of the judges of the Supreme Court shall be reviewed by the people at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives following their appointment, and shall be reviewed again at the first general election of members of the House of Representatives after a lapse of ten (10) years, and in the same manner thereafter.
In cases mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, when the majority of the voters favors the dismissal of a judge, he shall be dismissed.
Matters pertaining to review shall be prescribed by law.
The judges of the Supreme Court shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law.
All such judges shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article 80. The judges of the inferior courts shall be appointed by the Cabinet from a list of persons nominated by the Supreme Court. All such judges shall hold office for a term of ten (10) years with privilege of reappointment, provided that they shall be retired upon the attainment of the age as fixed by law.
The judges of the inferior courts shall receive, at regular stated intervals, adequate compensation which shall not be decreased during their terms of office.

Article 81. The Supreme Court is the court of last resort with power to determine the constitutionality of any law, order, regulation or official act.

Article 82. Trials shall be conducted and judgment declared publicly.
Where a court unanimously determines publicity to be dangerous to public order or morals, a trial may be conducted privately, but trials of political offenses, offenses involving the press or cases wherein the rights of people as guaranteed in Chapter III of this Constitution are in question shall always be conducted publicly.
CHAPTER VII

FINANCE

Article 83. The power to administer national finances shall be exercised as the Diet shall determine.

Article 84. No new taxes shall be imposed or existing ones modified except by law or under such conditions as law may prescribe.

Article 85. No money shall be expended, nor shall the State obligate itself, except as authorized by the Diet.

Article 86. The Cabinet shall prepare and submit to the Diet for its consideration and decision a budget for each fiscal year.

Article 87. In order to provide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reserve fund may be authorized by the Diet to be expended upon the responsibility of the Cabinet.
The Cabinet must get subsequent approval of the Diet for all payments from the reserve fund.

Article 88. All property of the Imperial Household shall belong to the State. All expenses of the Imperial Household shall be appropriated by the Diet in the budget.

Article 89. No public money or other property shall be expended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any religious institution or association, or for any charitable, educational or benevolent enterprises not under the control of public authority.

Article 90. Final accounts of the expenditures and revenues of the State shall be audited annually by a Board of Audit and submitted by the Cabinet to the Diet, together with the statement of audit, during the fiscal year immediately following the period covered.
The organization and competency of the Board of Audit shall be determined by law.

Article 91. At regular intervals and at least annually the Cabinet shall report to the Diet and the people on the state of national finances.
CHAPTER VIII

LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT

Article 92. Regulations concerning organization and operations of local public entities shall be fixed by law in accordance with the principle of local autonomy.

Article 93. The local public entities shall establish assemblies as their deliberative organs, in accordance with law.
The chief executive officers of all local public entities, the members of their assemblies, and such other local officials as may be determined by law shall be elected by direct popular vote within their several communities.

Article 94. Local public entities shall have the right to manage their property, affairs and administration and to enact their own regulations within law.

Article 95. A special law, applicable only to one local public entity, cannot be enacted by the Diet without the consent of the majority of the voters of the local public entity concerned, obtained in accordance with law.
CHAPTER IX

AMENDMENTS

Article 96. Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all the members of each House and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such election as the Diet shall specify.
Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be promulgated by the Emperor in the name of the people, as an integral part of this Constitution.
CHAPTER X

SUPREME LAW

Article 97. The fundamental human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the people of Japan are fruits of the age-old struggle of man to be free; they have survived the many exacting tests for durability and are conferred upon this and future generations in trust, to be held for all time inviolate.

Article 98. This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the nation and no law, ordinance, imperial rescript or other act of government, or part thereof, contrary to the provisions hereof, shall have legal force or validity.
The treaties concluded by Japan and established laws of nations shall be faithfully observed.

Article 99. The Emperor or the Regent as well as Ministers of State, members of the Diet, judges, and all other public officials have the obligation to respect and uphold this Constitution.
CHAPTER XI

SUPPLEMENTARY PROVISIONS

Article 100. This Constitution shall be enforced as from the day when the period of six months will have elapsed counting from the day of its promulgation.
The enactment of laws necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution, the election of members of the House of Councillors and the procedure for the convocation of the Diet and other preparatory procedures necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution may be executed before the day prescribed in the preceding paragraph.

Article 101. If the House of Councillors is not constituted before the effective date of this Constitution, the House of Representatives shall function as the Diet until such time as the House of Councillors shall be constituted.

Article 102. The term of office for half the members of the House of Councillors serving in the first term under this Constitution shall be three years. Members falling under this category shall be determined in accordance with law.

Article 103. The Ministers of State, members of the House of Representatives and judges in office on the effective date of this Constitution, and all other public officials who occupy positions corresponding to such positions as are recognized by this Constitution shall not forfeit their positions automatically on account of the enforcement of this Constitution unless otherwise specified by law. When, however, successors are elected or appointed unless otherwise specified by law. When, however, successors are elected or appointed under the provisions of this Constitution, they shall forfeit their positions as a matter of course.

湘南日独協会の2月例会・講演会では、
明治大学のProf. Dr. Heinrich Menkhaus氏の「ドイツ人法律家の見た日本国憲法」がありました。
湘南日独協会の会員である中島 敏 様の文面↓引用し、紹介させていただきます
http://jdg-shonan.ciao.jp/html/event.html

2017年2月26日に湘南アカデミアで、ハインリッヒ・メンクハウス教授の講演会が開催されましたので、参加させていただきました。

演題は、日本国憲法についてですが、メンクハウス教授は、「ある不思議な国の憲法」ということで、 ドイツ基本法やアメリカ合衆国憲法などと比べると日本国憲法は相当程度特異なきめ方になっている、とご指摘がありまして、 大変興味深く思いました。

「領土」については各条規定でなく、前文で示されている。 「日本国民は・・・われらとわれらの子孫のために、・・・わが国全土にわたって自由のもたらす恵沢を確保し、・・・」 全土とは例えば尖閣諸島も含むものである。

「国民」については第10条。「日本国民たる要件は、法律でこれを定める。」

「権力」については各条規定でなく、前文で示されている。「・・・その権威は国民に由来し、その権力は国民の代表者がこれを行使し・・・」

「国旗」については憲法上規定なし。国旗及び国歌に関する法律第1条により日章旗と定められている。

「国歌」については憲法上規定なし。国旗及び国歌に関する法律第2条により君が代と定められている。

「国家象徴」憲法上規定なし。此処で言う象徴とは天皇云々でなく、Wahrzeichen、標章、象徴の意味である。

「国家家紋」憲法上規定なし。事実上、七五桐となっている。しかし例えばパスポートには菊の御紋が入っているが、これは天皇家の家紋であって国家家紋ではない。

「国語・文字」憲法上規定なし。(文化庁国語審議会で模範形を提示している。)

「君主主義」憲法上明確な定めはなく、あいまいである。天皇が元首であると書いてない。 第1章天皇の各条に代表という言葉は出てこない。代表、日本の代表として扱おうということにしているだけである。

「民主主義」国民主権第15条。アメリカ合衆国から飛んできた規定である。

「中央集権主義」連邦制でないことを明示していない。地方自治第8章を認めているが制限的である。 地方公共団体は・・・法律の範囲内で条例を制定することができる。(第94条)江戸時代は各藩自治の幕藩体制であった。

「法治主義」定めが曖昧である。コネ・友・派閥で法を排除しようとする。

「社会福祉主義」曖昧だが、一応規定はある。第13条幸福追求権、第25条2項社会福祉・社会保障・公衆衛生の向上及び増進に努める国の努力義務。

「平和主義」第9条。本当はアメリカは失敗したとおもったのだろう、朝鮮戦争勃発でこの規定を認めなければよかったとおもったことだろう。 自衛隊は明らかに第9条2項違反である。直さなければならない。

「社会的市場経済制」定めが曖昧。一応28条、29条の定めがあるが、規定が足りない、不十分である。

「政教分離」第20条、第89条。国家神道の廃止の現れである。 国家と、特に神社及び神道の典礼様式とを分離することは完全には行われていない。 市が神社施設に無償で土地を貸与することにつき、最高裁判所は、違憲とする判決を出したが、 原告にはピュロスの勝利しか分け与えられなかった。 有償譲渡契約が締結され将来の不法が除去されただけであった。(配布資料44頁)

「基本権」そもそも憲法上 固有のメルクマールである基本権の他に義務も挙げられている。 勤労の義務(第27条)、子供に教育を受けさせる義務(第26条2項)、納税の義務(第30条)。 立憲主義によると義務の規定は可笑しい。基本権に関する具体的な制限が定められていない。 第12条及び第13条の規定は権利の制限を公共の福祉に見出すものであるが、広範な価値判断の余地を残すものである。

「法人又は権利能力なしの団体(任意団体)」の基本権の定めがない。 今後、AI(人工頭脳)、意識できるロボットなどに対する規制をどうしたらよいか? この場合、賦与されるのは、人権か国民権か?

「第97条は不変不易か?」・・・基本的人権は・・・現在及び将来の国民に対し、 侵すことの出来ない永久の権利として信託されたものである。

「基本権の機能」防御権、関与権、請求権(国に対して損害賠償請求できる権利)、 客観的価値観制度(国に対してだけという考え方から企業に対しても不平等はいけないよ、 といえることでなければ可笑しい。)、法律秩序の機関の存続保証。

「法律留保と制限の秩序」第13条公共の福祉、基本権を法律で制限することは憲法違反である。

「超過禁止と比例原則」適切性、必要性、妥当性をチェックする。

「中央集権主義と二院制」 米国側は日本を連邦制にしなかったので下院とは別の議院を予定していなかった。 日本人が自ら上院を要請し、この上院(参議院)の存在を正当化した。 偶然に下院とは異なる政治的多数が上院に存在する場合(ねじれ国会)に限り、下院への有効な統制が成り立つ。 他方、下院は幾つかの事案については上院と異なる決定も行うことが出来る。

概ね以上がレクチャーの要点です。日本では日本国憲法が世界に誇れる立派な基本法(特に第9条)だと自画自賛する人が多いですが、 わが憲法がけっして完全無欠万能ではないことがよく分かりました。 御質疑・御意見のなかで、憲法リテラシー(日本人のなかにはそもそも憲法のリテラシーがないのではないかという問題) の御指摘があったことを報告いたしておきます。
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