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Prisoners: 20 Korean Comfort Girls

2013-03-21 18:30:34 | 従軍慰安婦

そこで英文も出しておきますので、機会があったら拡散して下さい。
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UNITED STATES OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION
Psychological Warfare Team Attached to U.S. Army Forces
India-Burma Theater APO 689

Japanese Prisoner of War Interrogation Report No. 49.

Place interrogated: Ledo Stockade
Date Interrogated: Aug. 20 - Sept. 10, 1944
Date of Report: October 1, 1944
By: T/3 Alex Yorichi


Prisoners: 20 Korean Comfort Girls
Date of Capture: August 10, 1944
Date of Arrival: August 15, 1994
at Stockade

PREFACE
This report is based on the information obtained from the interrogation
of twenty Korean "comfort girls" and two Japanese civilians captured
around the tenth of August, 1944 in the mopping up operations after the
fall of Myitkyin a in Burma.

The report shows how the Japanese recruited these Korean "comfort
girls", the conditions under which they lived and worked, their
relations with and reaction to the Japanese soldier, and their
understanding of the military situation.

A "comfort girl" is nothing more than a prostitute or "professional camp
follower" attached to the Japanese Army for the benefit of the soldiers.
The word "comfort girl" is peculiar to the Japanese. Other reports show
the "comfort girls" have been found wherever it was necessary for the
Japanese Army to fight. This report however deals only with the Korean "
comfort girls" recruited by the Japanese and attached to their Army in
Burma. The Japanese are reported to have shipped some 703 of these girls
to Burma in 1942.

RECRUITING;

Early in May of 1942 Japanese agents arrived in Korea for the purpose of
enlisting Korean girls for "comfort service" in newly conquered Japanese
territories in Southeast Asia. The nature of this "service" was not
specified but it was assumed to be work connected with visiting the
wounded in hospitals, rolling bandages, and generally making the
soldiers happy. The inducement used by these agents was plenty of money,
an opportunity to pay off the family debts, easy work, and the prospect
of a new life in a new land, Singapore. On the basis of these false
representations many girls enlisted for overseas duty and were rewarded
with an advance of a few hundred yen.

The majority of the girls were ignorant and uneducated, although a few
had been connected with "oldest profession on earth" before. The
contract they signed bound them to Army regulations and to war for the "
house master " for a period of from six months to a year depending on
the family debt for which they were advanced ...

Approximately 800 of these girls were recruited in this manner and they
landed with their Japanese "house master " at Rangoon around August
20th, 1942. They came in groups of from eight to twenty-two. From here
they were distributed to various parts of Burma, usually to fair sized
towns near Japanese Army camps.
Eventually four of these units reached the Myitkyina. They were, Kyoei,
Kinsui, Bakushinro, and Momoya. The Kyoei house was called the "Maruyama
Club", but was changed when the girls reached Myitkyina as Col.Maruyama,
commander of the garrison at Myitkyina, objected to the similarity to
his name.

PERSONALITY;

The interrogations show the average Korean "comfort girl" to be about
twenty-five years old, uneducated, childish, and selfish. She is not
pretty either by Japanese of Caucasian standards. She is inclined to be
egotistical and likes to talk about herself. Her attitude in front of
strangers is quiet and demure, but she "knows the wiles of a woman." She
claims to dislike her "profession" and would rather not talk either
about it or her family. Because of the kind treatment she received as a
prisoner from American soldiers at Myitkyina and Ledo, she feels that
they are more emotional than Japanese soldiers. She is afraid of Chinese
and Indian troops.

LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS;

In Myitkyina the girls were usually quartered in a large two story house
(usually a school building) with a separate room for each girl. There
each girl lived, slept, and transacted business. In Myitkina their food
was prepared by and purchased from the "house master" as they received
no regular ration from the Japanese Army. They lived in near-luxury in
Burma in comparison to other places. This was especially true of their
second year in Burma. They lived well because their food and material
was not heavily rationed and they had plenty of money with which to
purchase desired articles. They were able to buy cloth, shoes,
cigarettes, and cosmetics to supplement the many gifts given to them by
soldiers who had received "comfort bags" from home.

While in Burma they amused themselves by participating in sports events
with both officers and men, and attended picnics, entertainments, and
social dinners. They had a phonograph and in the towns they were allowed
to go shopping.

PRIOR SYSTEM;

The conditions under which they transacted business were regulated by
the Army, and in congested areas regulations were strictly enforced. The
Army found it necessary in congested areas to install a system of
prices, priorities, and schedules for the various units operating in a
particular areas. According to interrogations the average system was as
follows:

1. Soldiers 10 AM to 5 PM 1.50 yen 20 to 30 minutes

2. NCOs  5 PM to 9 PM 3.00 yen 30 to 40 minutes

3. Officers 9 PM to 12 PM 5.00 yen 30 to 40 minutes


These were average prices in Central Burma. Officers were allowed to
stay overnight for twenty yen. In Myitkyina Col. Maruyama slashed the
prices to almost one-half of the average price.

SCHEDULES;

The soldiers often complained about congestion in the houses. In many
situations they were not served and had to leave as the army was very
strict about overstaying. In order to overcome this problem the Army set
aside certain days for certain units. Usually two men from the unit for
the day were stationed at the house to identify soldiers. A roving MP
was also on hand to keep order. Following is the schedule used by the "
Kyoei" house for the various units of the 18th Division while at Naymyo.

Sunday  18th Div. Hdqs. Staff

Monday  Cavalry

Tuesday  Engineers

Wednesday Day off and weekly physical exam.

Thursday  Medics

Friday   Mountain artillery

Saturday  Transport


Officers were allowed to come seven nights a week. The girls complained
that even with the schedule congestion was so great that they could not
care for all guests, thus causing ill feeling among many of the soldiers.

Soldiers would come to the house, pay the price and get tickets of
cardboard about two inches square with the prior on the left side and
the name of the house on the other side. Each soldier's identity or rank
was then established after which he "took his turn in line". The girls
were allowed the prerogative of refusing a customer. This was often done
if the person were too drunk.

PAY AND LIVING CONDITIONS;

The "house master" received fifty to sixty per cent of the girls' gross
earnings depending on how much of a debt each girl had incurred when she
signed her contract. This meant that in an average month a girl would
gross about fifteen hundred yen. She turned over seven hundred and fifty
to the "master". Many "masters" made life very difficult for the girls
by charging them high prices for food and other articles.

In the latter part of 1943 the Army issued orders that certain girls who
had paid their debt could return home. Some of the girls were thus
allowed to return to Korea.

The interrogations further show that the health of these girls was good.
They were well supplied with all types of contraceptives, and often
soldiers would bring their own which had been supplied by the army. They
were well trained in looking after both themselves and customers in the
matter of hygiene. A regular Japanese Army doctor visited the houses
once a week and any girl found diseased was given treatment, secluded,
and eventually sent to a hospital. This same procedure was carried on
within the ranks of the Army itself, but it is interesting to note that
a soldier did not lose pay during the period he was confined.

REACTIONS TO JAPANESE SOLDIERS;

In their relations with the Japanese officers and men only two names of
any consequence came out of interrogations. They were those of Col.
Maruyama, commander of the garrison at Myitkyina and Maj. Gen.Mizukami,
who brought in reinforcements. The two were exact opposites. The former
was hard, selfish and repulsive with no consideration for his men; the
latter a good, kind man and a fine soldier, with the utmost
consideration for those who worked under him. The Colonel was a constant
habitué of the houses while the General was never known to have visited
them. With the fall of Myitkyina, Col. Maruyama supposedly deserted
while Gen. Mizukami committed suicide because he could not evacuate the
men.

SOLDIERS REACTIONS;

The average Japanese soldier is embarrassed about being seen in a "
comfort house" according to one of the girls who said, "when the place
is packed he is apt to be ashamed if he has to wait in line for his
turn". However there were numerous instances of proposals of marriage
and in certain cases marriages actually took place.

All the girls agreed that the worst officers and men who came to see
them were those who were drunk and leaving for the front the following
day. But all likewise agreed that even though very drunk the Japanese
soldier never discussed military matters or secrets with them. Though
the girls might start the conversation about some military matter the
officer or enlisted man would not talk, but would in fact "scold us for
discussing such un-lady like subjects. Even Col. Maruyama when drunk
would never discuss such matters."

The soldiers would often express how much they enjoyed receiving
magazines, letters and newspapers from home. They also mentioned the
receipt of "comfort bags" filled with canned goods, magazines, soap,
handkerchiefs, toothbrush, miniature doll, lipstick, and wooden clothes.
The lipstick and cloths were feminine and the girls couldn't understand
why the people at home were sending such articles. They speculated that
the sender could only have had themselves or the "native girls".

MILITARY SITUATION;

"In the initial attack on Myitleyna and the airstrip about two hundred
Japanese died in battle, leaving about two hundred to defend the town.
Ammunition was very low.

"Col. Maruyama dispersed his men. During the following days the enemy
were shooting haphazardly everywhere. It was a waste since they didn't
seem to aim at any particular thing. The Japanese soldiers on the other
hand had orders to fire one shot at a time and only when they were sure
of a hit."

Before the enemy attacked on the west airstrip, soldiers stationed
around Myitkyina were dispatched elsewhere, to storm the Allied attack
in the North and West. About four hundred men were left behind, largely
from the 114th Regiment. Evidently Col. Maruyama did not expect the town
to be attacked. Later Maj. Gen. Mizukami of the 56th Division brought in
reinforcements of more than two regiments but these were unable to hold
the town.

It was the consensus among the girls that Allied bombings were intense
and frightening and because of them they spent most of their last days
in foxholes. One or two even carried on work there. The comfort houses
were bombed and several of the girls were wounded and killed.

RETREAT AND CAPTURE;

The story of the retreat and final capture of the "comfort girls" is
somewhat vague and confused in their own minds. From various reports it
appears that the following occurred: on the night of July 31st a party
of sixty three people including the "comfort girls" of three houses
(Bakushinro was merged with Kinsui), families, and helpers, started
across the Irrawaddy River in small boats. They eventually landed
somewhere near Waingmaw, They stayed there until August 4th, but never
entered Waingmaw. From there they followed in the path of a group of
soldiers until August 7th when there was a skirmish with the enemy and
the party split up. The girls were ordered to follow the soldiers after
three-hour interval. They did this only to find themselves on the bank
of a river with no sign of the soldiers or any mea ns of crossing. They
remained in a nearby house until August 10th when they were captured by
Kaahin soldiers led by an English officer. They were taken to Myitleyina
and then to the Ledo stockade where the interrogation which form the
basis of this report took place.

REQUESTS

None of the girls appeared to have heard the loudspeaker used at
Myitkyina but very did overhear the soldiers mention a "radio broadcast.
"

They asked that leaflets telling of the capture of the "comfort girls"
should not be used for it would endanger the lives of other girls if the
Army knew of their capture. They did think it would be a good idea to
utilize the fact of their capture in any droppings planned for Korea

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