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Bapak's concept of soul (jiwa) or Roh ・6 The other five higher souls. -2・・

2017-05-09 | 日記
Such a phenomenon is common among Javanese mystics especially the abangan.

Probably the reason is that because of the lack of understanding of Arabic among the Javanese, they employed certain tactics in order to accommodate the spiritual needs of their followers according to their religious affiliation.

Such means are called djarwo-dosok or kiroto-boso by the Javanese, meaning " vocal -guess " method , that is an attempt to analyze a foreign language by phonetic analogy.

For example the word rasül in Arabic is translated by Javanese mystics as rosa or rahasia, meaning "taste" or "secret."

Because both rasül and roso or rahasia have the same tone elements namely "r" and "s";

the world zizalaha in the Qur'an is translated as id jadi jil olo, meaning "an evil satan."

This method of interpretation is always metaphorical and is employed to a large extent by Javanese mystics as is evident in their literature.

This usage is fairly common among several Sufis, too, in interpreting certain qur'anic verses.

Another prevailing phenomenon is that of answering mystical problems by way of telling the disciple that it is a secret or a mystery, and that he has not reached yet the stage when he can comprehend the mystery.

In the absence of a comprehensive explanation from Pak Subuh himself concerning his theory of higher souls, it might be profitable to investigate the attitudes towards the problem in the works of Muslim Sufis, and in particular of Javanese Mystics.

We begin with roh rohani, which is translated by Pak Subuh as Insan Kamil, the Perfect Man soul.

As far as we can determine the Sufis do not give it this same connotation, because ruhâni literally speaking does not bear any indication of a particular kind of rüh.

It merely gives the meaning of nisbat (relative adjective), that is, something related to or belonging to.

In this case, ruhani means something belonging to the spiritual world; likewise ilâhi is something relating to God, and jasmani something related to the corporeal body.

But among Javanese mystics this term is often used.

For example in Suluk Sangkan Paran we read,

Marang malaikat Arkam, siro angambila malih eroh kang sangan perkoro, kurnpulno dadi swidji, kang dingin roh nabati, kalih roh chewani iku, djasmani kaping tigo, kaping pate roh nurani, limo keng roh rochani siro angambila.

Ping nem roh rahmani ika, kaping pitu roh nafsani, roh nurkadim roh kudusnja, lan djahan manikem nenggih, tjampuren dadi sidji.
(From the angel of Arkam, take once again the nine souls and then mix them into one unit.

First the vegetable soul, second the animal soul, third the physical soul, fourth the nurani soul, fifth rochani soul, sixth roh rochmani, seventh roh nafsani, eighth roh nurkadim and ninth roh kudus. Mingle all into one).

But unfortunately this mystic does not give any specific connotation as to what exactly he means by roh rochani.

Again from Kitab Makrifat by Ki Sastroprajitno, we read,

"Anapun urip kito iku njowo Rachmani iku tetkolo den tjampuraken maring djisim kang alus - patang perkoro - kang dingin njowo rochani, kapindo njowo djasmani, kang kaping telu njowo chewani , lan kaping pat njowo nabati . "

(Our life is generated through the rachmani soul.

When it becomes mixed with the subtle body, it produces four elements:

rochani soul, djasmani soul, chewani soul and nabati soul).

Again we are unable to find out what is meant specifically by roch rochani.

All of these sufis, however, regard the ruhani soul as being very pure, free from physical aspects.

Probably because of this extreme purity, Pak Subuh regards this kind of soul as the soul of the Perfect Man.

For him there exists no way of picturing, no comparison to the rohani level.

Like Hujwiri, Pak Subuh regards Perfection (Kamal) as not being attainable except by those in whom perfection is established and whose imperfection is banished.

Al-Jïly's view in his al-Insan al-Kamil fi Ma'rifat al-Awakhir wal 'Awa'il basing his theory of the Perfect Man on a pantheistic monism which regards the Creator (al-haq) and the creature as complementary aspects of the Absolute Being, presents a contrast to Pak Subuh's ideas.

As we have seen from his statement above, it seems he is more concerned with the description of experience of those who have attained the level of Insan Kamil that is the state of -rida- (satisfaction) which is different from the -rida- of ordinary people.

Probably, as al-Jïly has stated, at this level, the Perfect Man has attained and experienced the jalal (beauty) of God.

from THE PATH OF SUBUD (1969) Author: Drs Kafrawi : McGill University Montreal. <-- Link

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