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2016-09-15 13:58:58 | 米国特許散策

US9328969
(Abstract)
"Disclosed herein are small, lightweight, portable, systems that have the capability of(可能な)reliably, reproducibly(再現可能), highly efficiently and relatively inexpensively providing a source of purified water of sufficient volumes for home dialysis. In addition, the systems disclosed herein require much less purified water at any one time than the volumes typically needed for dialysis today, thereby further reducing the expense of running the system at home."

"What is claimed is:
1. A water treatment device, comprising: at least first and second laminae(薄膜、薄層)arranged in a stacked(積層)relationship so as to form a stack(積層)of laminae, each lamina having a fluid flow field; an inlet pathway comprising the fluid flow field of the first lamina, the inlet pathway having a heat exchange region; an outlet pathway comprising the fluid flow field of the second lamina, the outlet pathway having a heat exchange region; a metal transfer layer disposed between the heat exchange region of the inlet pathway and the heat exchange region of the outlet pathway, the metal transfer layer being configured to(構成)transfer heat between fluid flowing in the inlet pathway and fluid flowing in the outlet pathway; a first cut-out(切欠き)in the first lamina, wherein the first cut-out is separate from and surrounds(囲む、囲繞)at least a portion of the fluid flow field of the first lamina without intersecting the first lamina fluid flow field; a second cut-out in the second lamina, wherein the second cut-out is separate from and surrounds at least a portion of the fluid flow field of the second lamina without intersecting the second lamina fluid flow field, and wherein the first and second cut-outs vertically align with(整列、一列、揃う)one another in the stack to form a collective cut-out that extends(延在)through the stack; and a first plate on the top of the stack and a second plate on the bottom of the stack, wherein the first and second plates enclose(囲む、収容、閉鎖)the top and bottom of the collective cut-out creating an insulating chamber to the fluid flow fields of the stack."

"The present disclosure concerns a dialysis system, such as a microfluidic or flow field dialyzer capable of being fluidly coupled to a dialysate stream and a blood stream, and a method for using the dialysis system.

There are, at present, hundreds of thousands of patients in the United States with end-stage renal(腎臓)disease. Most of those require dialysis to survive. United States Renal Data System projects the number of patients in the U.S. on dialysis(透析中)will climb past 600,000 by 2012. Many patients receive dialysis treatment at a dialysis center, which can place a demanding, restrictive and tiring schedule on a patient. Patients who receive in-center dialysis typically must travel to the center at least three times a week and sit in a chair for 3 to 4 hours each time while toxins and excess fluids are filtered from their blood. After the treatment, the patient must wait for the needle site(部位)to stop bleeding and blood pressure to return to normal, which requires even more time taken away from other, more fulfilling activities in their daily lives. Moreover, in-center patients must follow an uncompromising(厳しい、厳格)schedule as a typical center treats three to five shifts of patients in the course of a day. As a result, many people who dialyze three times a week complain of feeling exhausted for at least a few hours after a session.

Given the demanding nature of in-center dialysis, many patients have turned to home dialysis as an option. Home dialysis provides the patient with scheduling flexibility as it permits the patient to choose treatment times to fit other activities, such as going to work or caring for a family member. Unfortunately, current dialysis systems are generally unsuitable for use in a patient's home. One reason for this is that current systems(*無冠詞)are too large and bulky to fit within a typical home. Current dialysis systems(*無冠詞)are also energy-inefficient in that(という点で)they use large amounts of energy and require enormous amounts of water for proper use. Although some home dialysis systems are available, they generally use complex flow-balancing technology that is relatively expensive to manufacture and most systems are designed with a system of solenoid valves that create high noise levels. As a result, most dialysis treatments are performed at dialysis centers.

SUMMARY

In view of(鑑み)the foregoing, there is a need(必要、需要)for improved fluid purification systems, particularly water purification systems for preparing fluids for use in conjunction with home dialysis."

Dyalizer (Wikipedia)
"The dialyzer is the piece of equipment that actually filters the blood. Almost all dialyzers in use today are of the hollow-fiber(中空糸)variety. A cylindrical bundle of hollow fibers, whose walls are composed of semi-permeable membrane, is anchored at each end into potting compound (a sort of glue). This assembly is then put into a clear plastic cylindrical shell with four openings. One opening or blood port at each end of the cylinder communicates with(連通)each end of the bundle of hollow fibers. This forms the "blood compartment" of the dialyzer. Two other ports are cut into the side of the cylinder. These communicate with the space around the hollow fibers, the "dialysate compartment." Blood is pumped via the blood ports through this bundle of very thin capillary-like tubes, and the dialysate is pumped through the space surrounding the fibers. Pressure gradients are applied when necessary to move fluid from the blood to the dialysate compartment."

US6719907
(Abstract)
"A dual-stage filtration cartridge is provided. The cartridge can be embodied as a mid-dilution hemodiafiltration cartridge or a redundant sterilization filtration cartridge. The cartridge includes a housing having a first end and an opposing(対向)second end. The housing has a primary fluid inlet and outlet(*a primary fluid outlet;複数名詞の冗長形容の省略)at the first end of the cartridge. The housing also defines first and second filtration stages with the first filtration stage including first filtering elements disposed between the first and second ends of the housing. Each stage has a separate inter-lumen fiber space, but shares a common extra-lumen space. The primary fluid inlet communicates with(連通)the first filtering elements at the first end so that fluid flows through the first filtering elements toward the second end. The second filtration stage includes second filtering elements disposed between the first and second ends of the housing with the fluid outlet communicating with the second filtering elements at the first end."

"What is claimed is:
1. In(において)a blood dialysis system including a source of substitution fluid and a blood dialysis machine, a hemodiafiltration cartridge comprising: a housing including a blood inlet which receives(受付、受入れ)blood, a blood outlet which discharges diafiltered blood, a dialysate inlet for receiving a dialysate fluid and a dialysate outlet for discharging the dialysate fluid, the housing further including a plurality of semi-permeable filtering elements; a member for dividing the housing into a first hemodiafiltration stage and a second hemodiafiltration stage, a first portion of the plurality of semi-permeable filtering elements being(現在分詞)associated with the first stage and a second portion of the plurality of semi-permeable filtering elements being associated with the second stage, the blood inlet being in fluid communication only with(流体連通)the first stage, while the blood outlet is in fluid communication only with the second stage; and an inter-stage section for providing fluid communication between the first and second stages, the inter-stage section including an inlet for receiving a substitution fluid, wherein blood entering the blood inlet is partially diafiltered as(する際、時、しながら)it flows within the semi-permeable filtering elements of the first stage before being discharged into the inter-stage section where it is mixed with substitution fluid to form a blood/substitution mixture which then flows within the semi-permeable filtering elements of the second stage where further diafiltration occurs, wherein the housing includes only one dialysate fluid compartment that is common to both the first and second stages."

"23. A dual-stage filtration cartridge comprising: a housing having a first sterilization stage including first semi-permeable filtering elements and a second sterilization stage including second semi-permeable filtering elements, the housing having a first end and a second end with the first end including a fluid inlet port and a fluid outlet port(*cf. a fluid inlet and outlet port)and a member that divides(分ける、分割)the housing into the first sterilization stage and the second sterilization stage, first ends(*複数名詞に係るから複数)of the semi-permeable filtering elements being(*the first ends being)proximate to the first end of the housing, second ends of the semi-permeable filtering elements being proximate to the second end of the housing, the fluid inlet port being in fluid communication only with(流体連通)the first sterilization stage, while the fluid outlet port is in fluid communication only with the second sterilization stage, wherein the first and second semi-permeable filtering elements are sealed at the second end of the housing so as to cause the fluid entering the fluid inlet port to flow within lumen sections of the first semi-permeable filtering elements and then be filtered by being conducted(導く)across the first semi-permeable filtering elements and then subsequently being filtered again by being conducted across the second semi-permeable filtering elements and into the lumen sections of the second semi-permeable filtering elements prior to being discharged through the fluid outlet port."

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