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南アフリカ憲法照覧(連載第61回)

2017-04-21 | 南アフリカ憲法照覧

Police

第二〇五条以下は、警察の任務と統制に関する規定である。憲法上、警察に関する規定がこれほど充実している憲法は珍しいが、これもアパルトヘイト時代、人種差別的弾圧の先兵を務めた警察の立憲的統制が重要課題であることの現れであろう。

205. Police service

1. The national police service must be structured to function in the national, provincial and, where appropriate, local spheres of government.

2. National legislation must establish the powers and functions of the police service and must enable the police service to discharge its responsibilities effectively, taking into account the requirements of the provinces.

3. The objects of the police service are to prevent, combat and investigate crime, to maintain public order, to protect and secure the inhabitants of the Republic and their property, and to uphold and enforce the law.

 警察業務と題する本条は、警察の組織・任務について規定している。それによると、南ア警察は国家警察として国・州・市の各レベルで機能する一元的組織である。連邦制を採用する国としては珍しい構成と言える。

206. Political responsibility

1. A member of the Cabinet must be responsible for policing and must determine national policing policy after consulting the provincial governments and taking into account the policing needs and priorities of the provinces as determined by the provincial executives.

2. The national policing policy may make provision for different policies in respect of different provinces after taking into account the policing needs and priorities of these provinces.

3. Each province is entitled —

a. to monitor police conduct;

b. to oversee the effectiveness and efficiency of the police service, including receiving reports on the police service;

c. to promote good relations between the police and the community;

d. to assess the effectiveness of visible policing; and

e. to liaise with the Cabinet member responsible for policing with respect to crime and policing in the province.

4. A provincial executive is responsible for policing functions —

a. vested in it by this Chapter;

b. assigned to it in terms of national legislation; and

c. allocated to it in the national policing policy.

5. In order to perform the functions set out in subsection (3), a province —

a. may investigate, or appoint a commission of inquiry into, any complaints of police inefficiency or a breakdown in relations between the police and any community; and

b. must make recommendations to the Cabinet member responsible for policing.

6. On receipt of a complaint lodged by a provincial executive, an independent police complaints body established by national legislation must investigate any alleged misconduct of, or offence committed by, a member of the police service in the province.

7. National legislation must provide a framework for the establishment, powers, functions and control of municipal police services.

8. A committee composed of the Cabinet member and the members of the Executive Councils responsible for policing must be established to ensure effective co-ordination of the police service and effective co-operation among the spheres of government.

9. A provincial legislature may require the provincial commissioner of the province to appear before it or any of its committees to answer questions.

 政治的責任と題する本条は、警察に対する政治責任を規定している。とりわけ各州が国家警察の運営・監督に関与する権限と制度について詳細に規定する。これは州警察を持たないがゆえの策として、国家警察を州と協調的に管理運営する趣旨である。

207. Control of police service

1. The President as head of the national executive must appoint a woman or a man as the National Commissioner of the police service, to control and manage the police service.

2. The National Commissioner must exercise control over and manage the police service in accordance with the national policing policy and the directions of the Cabinet member responsible for policing.

3. The National Commissioner, with the concurrence of the provincial executive, must appoint a woman or a man as the provincial commissioner for that province, but if the National Commissioner and the provincial executive are unable to agree on the appointment, the Cabinet member responsible for policing must mediate between the parties.

4. The provincial commissioners are responsible for policing in their respective provinces —

a. as prescribed by national legislation; and

b. subject to the power of the National Commissioner to exercise control over and manage the police service in terms of subsection (2).

5. The provincial commissioner must report to the provincial legislature annually on policing in the province, and must send a copy of the report to the National Commissioner.

6. If the provincial commissioner has lost the confidence of the provincial executive, that executive may institute appropriate proceedings for the removal or transfer of, or disciplinary action against, that commissioner, in accordance with national legislation.

 警察業務の統制と題する本条は、警察の指揮系統に関する規定である。それによると、大統領→警察担当閣僚→国家警察総監→州警察長官となる。国家警察総監は大統領が任命する。州警察長官は国家警察総監の権限に服する。

208. Police civilian secretariat

 A civilian secretariat for the police service must be established by national legislation to function under the direction of the Cabinet member responsible for policing.

 警察官房長と題する本条は、警察担当大臣の指揮下で警察行政を統括する背広の警察行政官に関する規定である。防衛官房長に相応する役職である。

Intelligence

第11章最後の二か条は、諜報機関に関する規定である。軍・警察に比べ簡素ながら、諜報機関に関する規定が憲法に規定されるのも珍しい。

209. Establishment and control of intelligence services

1. Any intelligence service, other than any intelligence division of the defence force or police service, may be established only by the President, as head of the national executive, and only in terms of national legislation.

2. The President as head of the national executive must appoint a woman or a man as head of each intelligence service established in terms of subsection (1), and must either assume political responsibility for the control and direction of any of those services, or designate a member of the Cabinet to assume that responsibility.

 諜報機関の設置及び統制と題する本条によると、いかなる諜報機関も法律に基づき大統領によってのみ設置され、大統領がその統制・指揮に政治責任を負う。

210. Powers, functions and monitoring

National legislation must regulate the objects, powers and functions of the intelligence services, including any intelligence division of the defence force or police service, and must provide for —

a. the co-ordination of all intelligence services; and

b. civilian monitoring of the activities of those services by an inspector appointed by the President, as head of the national executive, and approved by a resolution adopted by the National Assembly with a supporting vote of at least two thirds of its members.

 権限、任務及び監察と題する本条は、あらゆる諜報機関の協調、大統領が国民議会の三分の二以上の承認に基づき任命する監察官による監察を法律をもって定めるべきことを規定している。

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