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G20と政策協調 市場安定へ行動が求められる

2016-02-29 08:57:00 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
G-20 nations must coordinate policies to stabilize global financial markets
G20と政策協調 市場安定へ行動が求められる

Can the current turmoil in global financial markets be contained by the latest moves of the Group of 20 countries? The developed and emerging market economies must coordinate their policies effectively to achieve this goal.
 世界的な金融市場の混乱を、これで抑えられるか。先進国と新興国は政策協調を実効あるものとしなくてはならない。

A conference of the G-20 finance ministers and central bank governors ended on Saturday. A joint communique adopted at the conference included the grim perception that “Downside risks and vulnerabilities have risen” for the global economy.
 主要20か国・地域(G20)財務相・中央銀行総裁会議が閉幕した。採択された共同声明は、「世界経済の下方リスクと脆弱ぜいじゃく性が高まっている」とする厳しい認識を示した。

Based on this recognition, the G-20 countries expressed their strong resolve in the communique to “use all policy tools — monetary, fiscal and structural — individually and collectively” to check the global economy from stalling.
 そのうえで、世界経済の失速回避に向けて、金融政策や構造改革、財政出動といった「全ての政策手段を総合的に用いる」との強い決意を表明した。

The world economy has been shrouded in a number of destabilizing factors, such as the slowdown in China’s economic growth, a drop in crude oil prices, and capital flows out of emerging market economies in the wake of the recent U.S. interest rate hike.
 世界経済は、中国の成長鈍化や原油安、米国の利上げに伴う新興国からの資金流出など、多くの不安要因に覆われている。

It is noteworthy that the G-20 countries shared a sense of alarm and came up with a stance of jointly tackling these challenges to realize market stabilization.
 G20が危機感を共有し、市場の安定化へ協調して臨む姿勢を打ち出したことは評価できよう。

The G-20 countries agreed on the view that excessive movement in exchange rates can adversely affect the world economy. They also reaffirmed that they will refrain from competitive devaluations of currencies to promote their exports. The communique thus took into consideration the concern in the market over the yen’s excessive rise and China’s devaluation of the yuan.
 各国は、過度な為替の変動が経済に悪影響を及ぼすとの見解で一致した。輸出促進のために自国通貨を切り下げる「通貨安競争」を避けることも確認した。行き過ぎた円高や、人民元切り下げを懸念する市場に配慮した形だ。

The focal point of the conference was whether China, chair of the conference and a country reckoned to be the epicenter of market confusion, can send an effective message to calm the market turmoil.
 会議の焦点は、市場の混乱の震源地とされる議長国・中国が、動揺を鎮めるのに有効なメッセージを発信できるかどうかだった。

Trying to calm fears

People’s Bank of China Gov. Zhou Xiaochuan sought to ease the distrust of the market by saying at a press conference, among other things, that the bank would take additional monetary-easing measures. The press conference was, unusually, held ahead of the opening of the G-20 conference. Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang also made clear the country’s policy of promoting structural reforms.
 中国人民銀行の周小川総裁は、開会前に異例の記者会見を開いて追加の金融緩和策に言及するなど、市場の不信感を和らげるのに懸命だった。李克強首相も構造改革を進める方針を表明した。

However, just emphasizing a reform-promoting stance will not be enough to eliminate deep-rooted concerns about China’s economic prospects. The country will be required to specify the policy course it will take.
 だが、中国経済の先行きへの根深い不安を払拭するには、改革姿勢を強調するだけでは足りない。今後の政策の道筋を市場に明示することが求められよう。

It is reasonable that Finance Minister Taro Aso said, “Chinese authorities need to present a structural reform plan with a concrete schedule.”
 麻生財務相が「具体的なスケジュールを伴った構造改革のプランを示す必要がある」と注文をつけたのは、もっともだ。

In dealing with challenges such as reducing excess production capacity and reorganizing state-owned enterprises, the ability to act to carry through painful reforms is vitally needed.
 過剰設備の解消や国有企業の再編など、痛みを伴う改革をやり抜く行動力が欠かせない。

It is also appropriate that the communique clearly stated, “We will clearly communicate our policy actions to minimize negative spillovers,” apparently taking into account such countries as the United States, which is exploring ways to make an additional interest rate hike.
 声明が、追加利上げを模索する米国などを念頭に、「政策の負の波及効果を最小化するため、明確にコミュニケーションを行う」と明記したのも妥当である。

We hope G-20 countries make policy decisions carefully by also paying attention to the possible ill effects of interest rate hikes, such as an exodus of capital from emerging economies.
 新興国からの資金流出など、利上げの悪影響にも目配りしながら慎重な政策判断をしてほしい。

The vulnerability of Europe’s financial system was also taken up for discussion at the conference. European countries need to throw their energy into accelerating their disposal of nonperforming loans and implementing structural reforms to vitalize their economies.
 会議では欧州の金融システムの脆弱性も議論された。不良債権処理の加速や、経済を活性化する構造改革に力を注ぐ必要がある。

Japan explained to other G-20 countries that it will get the nation out of deflation with its negative interest rate policy. It is imperative to realize an economic recovery led by domestic demand while pushing through growth strategies.
 日本は、マイナス金利政策でデフレ脱却を図る考えを説明した。成長戦略を進め、内需主導の景気回復を実現することが急務だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 28, 2016)

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高浜再稼働 後始末をどうするのか

2016-02-28 06:23:30 | 英字新聞

--The Asahi Shimbun, Feb. 27
EDITORIAL: Dealing with nuclear waste a pressing concern with Takahama reactor restart
(社説)高浜再稼働 後始末をどうするのか

Kansai Electric Power Co. restarted the No. 4 reactor at its Takahama nuclear power plant in Fukui Prefecture on Feb. 26.
 福井県の関西電力高浜原発4号機が再稼働した。

The 870-megawatt pressurized water reactor became the fourth to resume operations since stricter safety guidelines were introduced after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami.
The No. 1 and No. 2 reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co.’s Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture, as well as the No. 3 reactor at the Takahama facility, had already been brought back online.
 東日本大震災後、新しい規制基準のもとでは九州電力川内原発1、2号機(鹿児島県)、高浜3号機に続き4基目だ。

The No. 4 reactor at the Takahama plant, like the No. 3 reactor, uses mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel consisting of plutonium and uranium to generate electricity.
 高浜4号機は3号機と同様、ウランとプルトニウムの混合酸化物(MOX)燃料を使うプルサーマル発電が実施される。

What concerns us is whether local residents will be safely and smoothly evacuated in the event of a severe accident at the plant. The decision to resume operations is highly questionable in light of the lessons learned from the calamitous accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 事故時に住民がスムーズに避難できるかという課題は積み残されたままだ。東京電力福島第一原発事故の教訓を踏まえた再稼働とはとうてい言えない。

Earlier this month, a small amount of radioactive water was found to have leaked near purification equipment installed in the auxiliary structure of the No. 4 reactor building during a test to send water down the primary coolant pipe connected to the reactor.
 4号機では、稼働準備中に微量の放射性物質を含む水漏れが起きた。

The cause of the leak was a loose bolt in a valve, according to the utility.
配管の弁のボルトが緩んでいたという。

The triple meltdown at the Fukushima plant five years ago has made Japanese far more aware of safety concerns when it comes to nuclear power generation.
福島原発事故後、安全性への国民の視線は格段に厳しくなった。

Kansai Electric claims it has checked all other valves. Even so, the utility must realize it is assuming a heavy responsibility with regard to the overall safety of the reactor it has restarted.
関電は他の弁の点検もしたというが、動かす以上、重い責任を負うことにいま一度自覚を求めたい。

Operating a reactor inevitably produces additional spent nuclear fuel. What is needed now is a fresh, hard look at the intractable challenge of what to do with nuclear waste.
 原発を動かせば使用済み核燃料が増える。再稼働を機にこの後始末の問題を直視すべきだ。

At Kansai Electric’s Takahama, Mihama and Oi nuclear plants, about 70 percent of the capacity of the spent fuel pools is already in use. If all nine reactors at these plants are brought back on stream, the storage pools will reach their capacity limit in seven to eight years.
 関電の高浜、美浜、大飯原発では使用済み燃料を入れるプールがほぼ7割埋まっている。全9基の原子炉を再稼働すれば7~8年で満杯になる計算だ。

Under the government’s nuclear fuel recycling program, spent fuel is supposed to be reprocessed at a special plant in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, to separate plutonium for fresh use as fuel.
 国の方針の核燃料サイクルに沿えば、使用済み燃料は青森県六ケ所村の工場で再処理され、燃料としてよみがえるはずだった。

But the completion of the reprocessing plant has been delayed repeatedly, with no prospect of actual operation.
だが工場は完成延期が続き、実現のめどは立たない。

In addition, spent MOX fuel produced by a reactor burning a mix of uranium and plutonium in plutonium-thermal (pluthermal) operations cannot be reprocessed at the Rokkasho plant.
 しかも、プルサーマルで生じる使用済みMOX燃料は六ケ所の工場で再処理できない。

Since the government has made no decision with regard to the disposal of spent fuel, the utility can only store used MOX within the plant, at least for the time being.
国は方針を決めておらず、当面は原発内で保管するしかない。

The consequences of postponing a decision on how to tackle these vital problems are now making themselves felt.
 これらの問題を先送りしてきたツケが、噴き出している。

Consumers, for their part, have long taken for granted that atomic energy will generate much of the electricity they consume. They should not simply foist the responsibility for dealing with the problems on the government or the utilities.
 原発に頼ってきた消費者側も、国や電力会社に責任を押しつけて済む話ではない。

Society as a whole needs to show a sense of responsibility by getting involved in debate on the future of nuclear waste disposal in this country.
自分たちの問題として、社会全体で今後の方向性を議論していく必要がある。

People in the Kansai region served by the utility and Fukui Prefecture, where the reactors are located, may be in a position to take the leadership in initiating the debate.
関西と福井とでその先鞭(せんべん)をつけられないか。

Worried about the expected increase in spent nuclear fuel at the plant, the Fukui prefectural government is calling on Kansai Electric and the central government to build an interim storage facility outside the prefecture.
 使用済み燃料の増加を懸念した福井県は、中間貯蔵施設を県外につくるよう関電と国に要求している。

Last November, the company promised to decide on the location of such a facility around 2020 and start operating it around 2030.
関電は昨年11月、「20年ごろに場所を決め、30年ごろに操業する」と約束した。

The utility has indicated its intention to build the envisioned storage facility in the Kansai region, which consumes the electricity generated at the plant. But no local government in the region has expressed any willingness to accept such a site.
 関電は「消費地の関西に」というが、受け入れに前向きな自治体はない。

This surely is an issue the communities that use the power should tackle.
だが消費地が向き合わなければならない問題だ。

Kansai Electric may as well propose talks over the issue with the Union of Kansai Governments, composed of the governors of the prefectures and the mayors of the ordinance-designated cities in the Kansai region.
関電から関西の知事、政令指定市長が加わる関西広域連合に協議を申し入れてはどうか。

If the Fukui prefectural government is also allowed to sit at the negotiating table, it will be a first step toward mending the relationship between areas where nuclear power plants are located and markets for power generated at the plants. The relationship has been strained by the Fukushima nuclear disaster.
 この場に福井県も加われば、福島事故後に対立が深まった消費地と立地地域との関係を結び直す一歩にもなろう。

We realize the talks would not produce any real solution quickly. But it is no longer possible to avoid addressing the issue.
 むろんすぐに答えは出まい。だが、議論からもはや逃げられない。

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中国と南シナ海 軍事拠点化の加速を憂慮する

2016-02-27 07:08:16 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S. must bolster patrol activity to secure stability in S. China Sea
中国と南シナ海 軍事拠点化の加速を憂慮する

China’s recent maritime activities can be regarded as a self-serving attempt to expand its sphere of influence by force and thereby increase regional tensions.
 力による支配の拡大で地域の緊張を高める独善的な企たくらみと言えよう。

China has been accelerating the militarization of islands and artificial isles in the South China Sea.
 中国が南シナ海で、島とう嶼しょや人工島の軍事拠点化を加速させている。

Satellite images and other findings have shown that China is constructing facilities believed to be radar installations on four reclaimed islands in the Spratly Islands.
 スプラトリー(南沙)諸島の四つの人工島でレーダーとみられる施設を建設していることが、衛星写真などで判明した。

It has already established a radar surveillance system in the northern half of the South China Sea, installing radar equipment in the Paracel Islands and elsewhere. With the latest installation of a radar system, China is apparently seeking to acquire warning and surveillance capabilities over almost the entire South China Sea.
 南シナ海の北半分ではすでに、パラセル(西沙)諸島などに設置したレーダーで監視体制を築いている。今回のレーダー網の整備によって、南シナ海のほぼ全域をカバーできる警戒監視能力を獲得する狙いだろう。

It was also revealed that China had deployed fighter jets and bombers in addition to long-range surface-to-air missiles to Woody Island in the Paracel Islands, which is effectively controlled by China. The island’s area is said to have increased by 40 percent in less than two years through expansion of a runway and other facilities.
 パラセル諸島では、中国が実効支配するウッディ島(永興島)に、長距離地対空ミサイルに続いて、戦闘機や戦闘爆撃機を配備したことも発覚した。滑走路の拡張などで、島の面積は2年足らずで4割も増大したとされる。

The series of Chinese maritime activities can be considered the foundation for establishing an air defense identification zone over the South China Sea in addition to the one already set up over the East China Sea.
 一連の措置は、東シナ海に加え、南シナ海にも防空識別圏を設定するための布石ではないか。

Clearly, the administration led by President Xi Jinping has an ambition to enclose the South China Sea — without grounds under international law — and treat it like a Chinese “lake” in an attempt to eliminate U.S. influence in the area. China is believed to be considering effectively implementing an anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) strategy to ensure naval and air supremacy, thereby deterring the intervention of the U.S. military in times of emergency.
 国際法の根拠のないまま、南シナ海を自らの「湖」のように囲い込み、米国の影響力の排除を図る習近平政権の野心は明白だ。
 制海権と制空権を確保し、米軍の有事介入を阻む「接近阻止・領域拒否(A2AD)」戦略を効果的に進める思惑もあろう。

Chinese sophistry

Adm. Harry Harris, commander of the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Command, has expressed a strong sense of caution against China’s militarization of the islands, telling a hearing of the Senate Armed Services Committee, “I believe China seeks hegemony in East Asia.”
 米太平洋軍のハリー・ハリス司令官は上院軍事委員会の公聴会で、「中国は東アジアで覇権を追求している」と述べ、軍事拠点化に強い警戒感を示した。

Of serious concern is that Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Li has dismissed U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry’s concern about China’s maritime activities.
 深刻なのは、訪米した中国の王毅外相がケリー米国務長官の懸念表明をはねつけたことである。

During a news conference after meeting with Wang, Kerry said, “I stressed that any enforcement by any party of maritime claims by deploying their own aircraft over disputed areas are not compatible with the freedoms of navigation and of skies of access to flight operations.” But unless Washington applies stronger pressure on Beijing, it will be impossible to stop China’s unilateral actions and speech.
 ケリー氏は記者会見で、「係争海域への航空機配備は、航行や上空飛行の自由と両立しない」と強調した。だが、米国がもっと厳しくクギを刺さなければ、中国の一方的な言動は止められまい。

Wang countered by saying more attention must be given to the fact that “strategic bombers and missile destroyers are appearing every day in the South China Sea.” China’s assertion that U.S. military patrol operations, which embody freedom of navigation, are “militarization” is nothing but sophistry.
 王氏は「戦略爆撃機やミサイル駆逐艦が南シナ海に毎日現れていることを重視すべきだ」と反論した。「航行の自由」を体現する米軍の巡視活動を「軍事化」だとするのは、詭弁きべんに過ぎない。

During his visit to the United States last September, Xi stated that his country “has no intention of pushing militarization.” China argued persistently that the country would perform its international responsibilities, including providing rescue operations and ensuring the safety of navigation.
 習国家主席は昨年9月の訪米時に、「軍事化を進める意図はない」と明言していた。中国は、救難活動や航行の安全などで国際的責務を果たすとも強弁している。

We cannot accept a situation in which a great power that should play a pivotal role in stabilizing the South China Sea does not honor an international pledge and instead moves to destabilize the security conditions.
 南シナ海の安定に重要な役割を発揮すべき大国が国際公約を守らず、率先して情勢を不安定化させるような状況は容認できない。

It is essential for the United States to maintain and bolster patrol operations. Tokyo and Washington must cooperate closely with other countries concerned as they apply continued pressure on Beijing.
 米国が巡視活動を継続・強化することが肝要である。日米は関係国と緊密に連携し、対中圧力を維持せねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 26, 2016)

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原発の延命 電力会社次第なのか

2016-02-26 16:51:03 | 英字新聞

--The Asahi Shimbun, Feb. 25
EDITORIAL: Extending life of nuclear reactors should not be left solely up to utilities
(社説)原発の延命 電力会社次第なのか

Japan’s nuclear regulator has endorsed the safety of two reactors that have been in service for more than four decades.
The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) announced on Feb. 24 that the No. 1 and No. 2 reactors of Kansai Electric Power Co.’s Takahama nuclear power plant in Fukui Prefecture meet the new safety standards introduced after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster.
 運転開始から40年を超えた関西電力高浜原発1、2号機(福井県)について、原子力規制委員会は、安全対策が新規制基準に適合するとの判断を示した。

The NRA’s verdict has opened the door to an extension of the operating lives of the aging reactors to up to 60 years, one of Kansai Electric’s key goals for its nuclear power generation.
関電がめざす通算60年までの運転延長に道を開くものだ。

A revision to a law following the catastrophic accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant has set the legal life of nuclear reactors at 40 years. But one extension by up to 20 years is allowed with NRA approval.
 東京電力福島第一原発の事故を受けた法改正で、原発の運転期間は40年と定められた。ただし、規制委が認めれば、1回だけ最長20年間延長できる制度となった。

To extend the operational lives of the two reactors, the operator must receive several approvals from the NRA. If the NRA decides that the reactors have fulfilled all the related criteria, this will become the first case of an extension of the legal life of reactors under the new system.
 延長が認められるには、さらに規制委での許認可を得る必要がある。すべて通ればこの制度で初の運転延長となる。

The 40-year limit was introduced by the government led by the Democratic Party of Japan, which was in power when the nuclear disaster occurred, to demonstrate its commitment to weaning Japan from its dependence on atomic energy. It was aimed at ensuring a steady phasing out of nuclear power generation through the decommissioning of aging reactors.
 40年とするルールは、当時の民主党政権が脱原発への姿勢を示し、古い原発から順次退場させるために導入した。

The provision for an extension of the life span was added in response to concerns about possible power shortages due to insufficient capacity.
運転延長の規定は、需給が逼迫(ひっぱく)して停電に陥る恐れなどから盛り込まれた。

But no specific rules have been set with regard to what kind of circumstances should justify permitting extended operations.
しかし、その後、どんな状況で延長を認めるのか、特段の規定はないままとなっている。

What is vital for electric utilities is the economic viability of their nuclear power plants. Five small reactors that are not sufficiently cost-effective under the 40-year limit on operations have been set for retirement.
Of the remaining 43 reactors, 18 units have been in service for more than 30 years. Utilities will apply for permission to run aging reactors beyond the 40-year legal life span if it makes economic sense. Some applications for a longer license have already been filed with the NRA.
 電力会社にとって大切なのは採算だ。40年ルールの下、小型で採算の悪い5基は廃炉としたが、残る43基でも運転30年超が18基を占める。長く使うことが採算に合えば延長を求めるし、すでに申請もしている。

If an extension of the legal life of reactors is approved one after another, the 40-year limit could become meaningless.
 このまま次々と手続きが進めば、40年ルールが形骸化しかねない。

With such decisions, we are concerned that the government’s nuclear energy policy and the energy future of this nation are being defined under the initiative of electric utilities focused on generating profits.
原発政策も、将来のエネルギー社会も、電力会社の都合で決まって良いのか。

Where is the political will that transcends the profit equations of power suppliers?
電力会社の算段を超える政治の意思はないのか。

If aging reactors are allowed to exceed the 40-year life span in rapid succession, the disturbing safety risk posed by a thick cluster of reactors in Fukui Prefecture will not be reduced.
古い原発の運転延長が次々に決まれば集中立地する福井県のリスクが低下しないことにもなる。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has repeatedly pledged to reduce Japan’s dependence on nuclear energy as much as possible. The government should make it clear that an extension can be made as an exception.
安倍首相が「原発依存度を可能な限り低減する」と何度も公言してきたのだから、政府は延長を明確に例外と位置づけるべきだ。

Before the harrowing nuclear accident, there was no legal life for nuclear reactors. Initially, electric power companies said the operational life of their reactors was around 30 to 40 years.
 事故前は運転期間の定めはなく、電力各社も当初は「寿命は30~40年」と説明していた。

Later, the former nuclear regulator, which has been replaced by the NRA, introduced a system that allowed utilities to operate reactors for up to 60 years if they submit maintenance plans every 10 years after the 30th year of service. The regulator cited progress in analysis technology as the reason for extending operational licenses for reactors.
その後、旧規制当局は解析技術の向上を理由に30年以降10年ごとに保全計画を出せば、最長60年の運転を認めることにした。

The previous government’s decision to replace this system with the new 40-year rule reflected its will to phase out nuclear power generation in this nation.
 これを40年ルールに切り替えたのは、脱原発への意思である。

Immediately after assuming the post, NRA Chairman Shunichi Tanaka was skeptical about extending the life of reactors, saying it was “considerably difficult.”
規制委の田中俊一委員長も就任当時は運転延長については「相当困難」と述べてもいた。

In assessing the safety measures Kansai Electric has taken for the reactors at the Takahama plant, however, the NRA has given the green light to the utility’s plan to cover electric cables with a fire-resistant sheet where it is difficult to replace them with flame-retardant cables.
 しかし、高浜原発で規制委は電気ケーブルの防火対策について、難燃性ケーブルへの交換が難しい部分は防火シートで覆うとする関電の方針を認めた。

The NRA’s move has greatly encouraged utilities seeking to gain permission to run reactors past the 40-year limit because this has been a major technical obstacle to meeting the safety standards.
この問題にめどが立ったことで電力各社は勢いづいている。

In his policy speech at the beginning of the current Diet session in January, Abe made no reference to nuclear power generation. Does this indicate that the government will not do anything to stop the growing trend toward longer-term reactor operations?
 安倍首相は今年の施政方針演説で原発に言及しなかった。政府はこのままやり過ごすのか。

If so, the government will act against both the past words of the prime minister concerning the issue and the wishes of many Japanese to see their nation free from nuclear energy.
 それでは、首相の過去の発言にも、多くの国民が求める脱原発にも背くことになる。

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英国民投票へ EU離脱なら不安定化を招く

2016-02-25 09:48:04 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Europe to be unsettled if Britain opts to exit the EU in coming referendum
英国民投票へ EU離脱なら不安定化を招く

A referendum has been set for June 23 in Britain regarding whether the country should stay in or exit from the European Union.
 欧州連合(EU)に英国が残留するか、離脱するかを問う国民投票が、6月23日に実施されることになった。

Should the referendum comes out in favor of departure, there will be no turning back for the country. Britain is the second-largest economy in the EU and a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. If Britain leaves the bloc, it will inevitably have great impact on Europe’s politics and economy. The EU stands at a crossroads.
 国民投票で離脱となれば、もう後戻りはできない。英国は域内第2の経済規模を持ち、国連安全保障理事会常任理事国でもある。欧州の政治・経済に大きな影響を及ぼすのは避けられまい。EUは岐路に立っている。

Calling to stay in the EU, British Prime Minister David Cameron has emphasized, “Britain will be safer, stronger and better off by remaining in a reformed European Union.” It takes into account a recent agreement reached at a meeting of EU leaders to adopt a package of reform measures aimed at keeping Britain in the bloc.
 残留を訴えるキャメロン英首相は、「改革した欧州にとどまる方が、英国は、より強く安全で豊かになれる」と強調した。EU首脳会議が残留を後押しする改革で合意したことを踏まえたものだ。

The deal promises to guarantee Britain “special status” as a concession to that country by the other EU members.
 合意では、EU側が譲歩して、英国に特別な地位を保証した。

It acknowledges that Britain would not commit itself to further political integration. The agreement would enable Britain to restrict social security benefits given to immigrants and would also guarantee not to place a financial burden on Britain or other non-eurozone member states if an economic crisis erupts in the eurozone.
 政治統合の深化には、英国が関与しないことを容認した。移民に対する社会保障を英国が制限することを可能にし、ユーロ圏の経済危機で英国など非ユーロ圏に負担をかけないよう保証した。

Cameron’s leadership will be tested over whether he will be able to persuade the British public to accept his calls for remaining a part of the EU.
 EU加盟継続に向けて国民を説得できるのか、キャメロン氏の指導力が試されよう。

Divisions over immigration

Since last year, the EU has been confronted with the serious challenge of dealing with a sharp increase in immigrants from the Middle East. Each EU country resorted to its own measures aimed at restricting the inflow of immigrants to its respective territory, which has added impetus to the anti-EU movement. If the current situation goes on, European integration could fall into a crisis.
 EUは昨年以降、中東からの難民急増という深刻な課題に直面している。各国がバラバラに流入制限策に走り、反EUの動きを勢いづかせた。このままでは、欧州統合が危機に陥りかねない。

In Britain, anti-immigration party has gained strength in recent years, against the backdrop of an increase in the number of immigrants from Eastern European countries that have joined the EU. Euroskepticism, the name given to skeptical views of the EU, has grown increasingly strong within the ruling Conservative Party, too. Pledging to settle the immigration issue through a referendum, Cameron scored a victory in a general election last year.
 英国でも近年、EUに加盟した東欧諸国からの移民増加を背景に「反移民」政党が伸長し、与党・保守党内でもEU懐疑論が強まっていた。キャメロン氏は、この問題を決着させる国民投票を公約し、昨年の総選挙で勝利した。

Half of Britain’s export destinations are other EU countries. If Britain exits the EU, it will be necessary for the nation to conclude new trade and other agreements with the union. It is certain that the British economy will face greater uncertainties.
 英国の輸出先の半分はEUだ。離脱の場合は、EUとの間で貿易などの取り決めを締結し直す必要がある。英国経済の不透明さが増すのは確実だ。

The pro-exit camp has criticized the expansion of authorities given to EU and insists to restore sovereignty of Britain. London Mayor Boris Johnson — a prominent figure tipped as a candidate to succeed Cameron at the helm of the Conservative Party, with the hope of becoming the next prime minster — has said he supports Britain’s departure from the bloc. This will likely deal a blow to Cameron.
 離脱派は、EUの権限拡大を批判し、英国の主権を取り戻すべきだと主張する。保守党の首相後継候補と目される有力者、ジョンソン・ロンドン市長が「離脱」支持を表明したのは、キャメロン氏にとっては痛手となろう。

Johnson and others may expect that Britain will be able to achieve long-term economic development by having the City in London, an international financial center, freed from EU regulations.
 ジョンソン氏らには、国際金融センターであるロンドンのシティーをEUの規制から解放することで、長期的な経済発展が望めるという期待もあるのではないか。

Britain’s exit from the EU would lead to a decline in the EU’s presence as a huge single market. It would also weaken the EU’s voice in dealing with such diplomatic issues as the sanctions imposed on Russia and the fight against terrorism.
 英国の離脱は、巨大な単一市場としてのEUの存在感低下につながる。対ロシア制裁やテロ対策など外交分野での取り組みでも、EUの発言権を弱めよう。

A number of Japanese corporations have bases in Britain for their business operations in Europe. They could be forced to reconsider their business strategy, depending on the result of the British referendum.
 日本企業の多くが、欧州展開の拠点を英国に置く。国民投票の結果次第では、戦略の見直しを迫られることにもなる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 24, 2016)

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