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一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

2015-11-30 08:32:17 | 英字新聞

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 26
EDITORIAL: Vote-value disparity a gross inequality that cannot continue
(社説)一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

The Supreme Court’s latest ruling on the issue of vote-value disparity has left us wondering how long it will take until this clear, outrageous inequality is corrected.
It seems that both the judiciary and the legislature lack awareness of the urgent need to fix this unacceptable situation.
 国民の間に厳然とある不平等をいつまで放置するのか。司法も立法府も、異常をただす切迫感に欠けるのではないか。

The Supreme Court’s Grand Bench ruled on Nov. 25 that the Lower House election in December last year was held in a “state of unconstitutionality,” citing a huge disparity in the relative vote-value among constituencies.
 昨年の衆院選での一票の不平等をめぐり、最高裁が「違憲状態」との判決を出した。

Given that the top court has handed down three similar rulings in the past four years, it has become almost routine to hear it declare that an election was held in a “state of unconstitutionality.”
同様の結論はこの4年間で3回目であり、慣例化した感も漂う。

The Diet has dragged its feet on reforming the electoral system, so a fundamental solution to the problem has yet to be found.
 国会では抜本的に身をただす選挙制度改革の動きは遅れたままだ。

We are concerned that the Supreme Court’s tepid ruling on the issue could be used by the Diet as an excuse for its inaction.
最高裁の手ぬるい判決が国会の免罪符にされてしまわないか、懸念が残る。

In its ruling in 2011, the top court argued that the method of first distributing one seat to each of the 47 prefectures before allocating the remaining seats in the single-seat constituency part of the electoral system in proportion to population was the main cause of the vote-value disparity. The court said this approach should be “abolished as soon as possible.”
 最高裁は2011年、各都道府県にまず議席一つずつを割り振る1人別枠方式が、不平等を生む要因と断じた。「できるだけ速やかな撤廃」を求めた。

In its 2013 ruling on the Lower House election held in December 2012, however, the court took note of the Diet’s last-minute move to reduce the number of seats slightly as “certain progress,” easing the pressure on the Diet. The court’s latest ruling is in line with the 2013 decision.
 ところが13年の判決では、国会が駆け込みで若干の定数削減を決めたことを「一定の前進」とし、手綱を緩めた。今回の判断もこの延長上にある。

In the Nov. 25 ruling, the Supreme Court had encouraging words for work by a Lower House expert committee on the election system to come up with measures to revamp the seat-allocation method, saying efforts to improve the situation are being made in line with the past rulings.
 有識者でつくる衆院の選挙制度調査会が見直し策を検討していることにも言及し、これまでの判決に沿って是正が進められていると高く評価している。

Let us ponder this problem from a basic standpoint.
 原点に戻って考えたい。

In the Lower House election last December, one vote in the nation’s least populated constituency was worth 2.13 votes in the most heavily populated district. In other words, the weight of one person’s vote in a certain district was less than half of the weight of another person’s vote in a different district.
今回の最大格差は2・13倍。ある選挙区での一票の重みは、別の選挙区での半分にも満たない。

Casting votes in elections is the most important of the few opportunities for the public to exercise their sovereign power that is invested in them by the Constitution.
 選挙で票を投じるという行為は、憲法に定められた国民主権を具現化する数少ない、そしてもっとも重要な権利である。

Allowing a situation to continue where a vote in one district is worth less than half of a vote in another represents an egregious inequality among the people that must be redressed immediately.
住む場所によって票の価値が倍以上も違うという不平等はただちに改善されるべき問題だ。

The fact that the flawed seat-allocation method remains basically unchanged four years after the Supreme Court criticized is testimony to the Diet’s gross negligence.
 最高裁が1人別枠方式の問題を指摘して4年がたってもなお事実上撤廃されていないのは、国会の怠慢というほかない。

What is notable about the latest Supreme Court ruling is that three of the 14 justices of the Grand Bench criticized the Diet for its failure to tackle the problem, saying sufficient time had passed to realize equality in voting.
 注目すべきは、14人中3人の裁判官が、「投票の平等」を実現するのに必要な時間はもう十分あったと批判している点だ。

Two of the three dissenting justices argued for invalidating the Lower House election, and the remaining one called for declaring the election “unconstitutional” in the text of the judgment.
うち2人は選挙の無効を、1人は主文での「違憲」の宣言を、それぞれ主張している。

In the ruling, the top court maintained that the constitutional order should be formed through interactions between the judiciary and the legislature.
 最高裁は判決で、憲法の秩序は立法府との相互作用で形成されるとの趣旨を展開している。国会が法をつくる。

The interactions apparently work as follows. The Diet makes laws, and the Supreme Court sends its messages on certain laws through its rulings. The Diet then reforms the laws in response to the court’s rulings.
最高裁が判決でメッセージを出す。それにもとづいて国会が法を改める。

This seems to mean that the top court puts much importance on “dialogue” between the legislature and the judiciary.
立法府と司法との「対話」を重んじる考え方のようだ。

But history shows the Diet has repeatedly ignored messages from the judiciary or interpreted them in a way convenient to it.
 しかし振り返れば、司法のメッセージを国会は繰り返し無視したり、都合よく解釈したりしてきた。

In order to ensure meaningful “dialogue,” the top court should have made more specific demands, such as setting clear deadlines for corrective actions by the Diet.
「対話」を成り立たせるためには、今後の是正期限を明記するなど具体的な求めが必要だったのではないか。

The Supreme Court has repeatedly declared that both the Upper and Lower Houses have been elected in a “state of unconstitutionality.” This is simply an extraordinary situation.
 衆参両院が「違憲状態」で選ばれたと再三指摘されているのは異常事態である。

It is unacceptable that the Diet members, who are obliged to respect the Constitution, allow such serious inequality to remain unchanged.
憲法尊重の義務を負う議員が、不平等を野放しにすることは許されない。

This injustice should be rectified immediately.
早急に改めるべきである。

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五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

2015-11-29 07:27:03 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Take every possible antiterror step in preparation for 2020 Tokyo Games
五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

Preparations for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games stumbled significantly due to the withdrawal of plans for a new National Stadium and an emblem design.
 新国立競技場の建設計画とエンブレムの白紙撤回により、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの開催準備は、大きくつまずいた。

There will soon be 4½ years remaining before the opening of the sports extravaganza. The government must accelerate a diverse range of preparatory work based on the basic policy approved by the Cabinet.
 大会まで間もなく4年半となる。政府は、閣議決定した基本方針に基づき、多岐にわたる作業を加速させねばならない。

The basic policy defines the 2020 Games as “an opportunity for Japan to demonstrate to the world an advanced undertaking in a mature society.”
 基本方針は、大会を「成熟社会における先進的な取り組みを世界に示す契機」と位置付けた。

Above all, the policy calls for enriching Paralympic programs, saying that it “will contribute greatly to encouraging the impaired to become self-sustaining.” The term Paralympics was first used in the 1964 Tokyo Games. The 2020 Games will mark the first time a city has hosted the Summer Paralympics twice.
 中でも、「障害者の自立を促す大きな力となる」として、パラリンピックの充実を掲げた。1964年東京大会で、パラリンピックという用語が初めて使用された。20年大会は、同一都市で2回目の開催という初のケースとなる。

In view of this history, seeking to make the 2020 Paralymics the biggest ever is significant from the viewpoint of promoting the building of a symbiotic society.
 こうした経緯を踏まえ、過去最大規模のパラリンピックを目指すことは、共生社会の構築を推進する上で意義があろう。

A noticeable point in connection with the Olympics is that the basic plan set forth a goal of acquiring the highest number of gold medals in the country’s history. The past record of 16 was set at the 1964 Games in Tokyo and the Athens Olympics in 2004.
 五輪関連で目を引くのは、過去最多の金メダル獲得という目標を打ち出した点だ。64年東京五輪と04年アテネ五輪の16個がこれまでの最高だった。

As far as public money spent in reinforcing training programs for athletes, it is natural for the government to present a specific target. If Japanese athletes perform spectacularly, it will contribute greatly to generating excitement for the Games.
 選手強化に公費を投じる以上、政府が具体的な目標を示すのは、当然だろう。日本選手が活躍すれば、大会は大いに盛り上がる。

A strategic approach is crucial to achieving the goal. It is necessary to make effective use of limited fiscal resources through such means as allocating training expenses to promising athletes on a priority basis in preparation for the 2020 Games. The Sports Agency, which is in charge of fund distribution, has a grave responsibility.
 目標達成に重要なのは、戦略的な取り組みだ。20年に向けて、有望選手に強化費を重点配分するなど、限られた財源を有効に使う必要がある。配分を主導するスポーツ庁の責任は重い。

Anti-doping measures critical

Anti-doping measures are important for conducting fair athletic events. Against the background of the doping scandal that has hit the Russian athletics circle, eradication of doping has become a top priority in the sports world.
 競技を公正に実施するには、ドーピング対策も大切だ。ロシア陸上界の薬物汚染が問題になる中、ドーピングの撲滅は、スポーツ界の最優先課題である。

The basic policy, however, makes no concrete commitment on the issue, saying only that efforts will be made to “secure a well-prepared system” in cooperation with such organizations as the World Anti-Doping Agency. It is imperative to accelerate the study of specific measures to strengthen the doping test system.
 基本方針は、世界反ドーピング機関(WADA)などと連携し、「万全の体制整備を行う」との記述にとどまる。検査体制を強化する具体策の検討を急ぐべきだ。

To ensure the safety of athletes and spectators, utmost attention must be focused on antiterrorism measures.
 選手や観客の安全を守るために、最も注力せねばならないのが、テロ対策である。

The basic policy expressed a sense of crisis concerning terrorism, saying, “Terrorist threats are becoming a reality,” and pointed out the need to “ramp up intelligence gathering and analysis, border security and vigilance and security at venues, among others.”
 基本方針も「テロの脅威が現実のものになっている」と危機感を示し、「情報収集・分析、水際対策、会場の警戒警備などの強化」を挙げている。

It is indispensable for the private and public sectors to cooperate in enhancing the ability to cope with any possible situation.
 官民一体となって対処能力を向上させることが不可欠だ。

The basic policy enumerates various measures, including those on the expansion of roads and transport infrastructure and those to deal with the summer heat. To prevent expenses from swelling, it is necessary to list measures in the order of priority.
 道路・交通インフラの整備、暑さ対策など、基本方針には様々な施策が列挙されている。費用の膨張を避けるには、対策に優先順位をつける必要がある。

To smoothly prepare for the Games, the need to clarify the division of the roles and responsibilities to be undertaken by the government, the organizing committee and the Tokyo metropolitan government must not be forgotten.
 大会準備を効率的に進めるため、政府と大会組織委員会、東京都の役割分担と責任を明確にすることも忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 28, 2015)

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露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

2015-11-28 06:56:02 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It’s not the time for lobbing criticism over downing of Russian warplane
露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

This situation has poured cold water on the opportunity for cooperation between Russia, the United States and Europe that arose due to the terrorist attacks in Paris earlier this month. Lobbing criticism at each other must not be allowed to derail unity among nations seeking to wipe out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
 パリ同時テロで生まれた米欧とロシアの協調機運に水を差す事態だ。非難合戦で過激派組織「イスラム国」掃討の足並みを乱してはならない。

This week, a Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian bomber near the Turkey-Syria border. Turkey insists the Russian plane intruded into Turkish territorial airspace and the pilot did not respond to repeated warnings to leave the area. It reportedly had lodged protests against numerous previous violations of its airspace.
 トルコ軍機が、シリアとの国境付近で露軍の爆撃機を撃墜した。トルコは、露軍機が領空に侵入し、再三の退去警告にも応じなかった、と主張している。領空侵犯については、これまでも繰り返し抗議してきたという。

Russia, which in late September launched airstrikes in Syria, saying its aim is to stamp out ISIL, is supporting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad. Turkey supports Syrian antigovernment groups and gives priority to toppling the Assad administration. The diametrically opposed positions of Moscow and Ankara lurk in the background to the downing of the Russian warplane.
 9月末から「イスラム国」掃討を名目にシリアで空爆を始めたロシアは、シリアのアサド政権を擁護する。トルコはアサド政権の打倒を最優先し、反体制派を支援する。今回の撃墜の背景には、両国の立場の根本的な違いがある。

Russian President Vladimir Putin has denied the plane violated Turkish airspace and angrily retorted there would be “serious consequences.” Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov canceled a visit to Turkey, and Moscow has started taking other retaliatory measures such as restricting imports of agricultural products from Turkey.
 プーチン露大統領は侵犯を否定し、「重大な結果をもたらす」と強く反発した。ラブロフ外相がトルコ訪問を中止し、トルコ産農作物の輸入を制限するなどの対抗措置も取り始めた。

However, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has supported Turkey’s side of the story, and the U.S. military also confirmed the Russian aircraft received the warnings. Russia’s assertions seem to lack credibility.
 だが、北大西洋条約機構(NATO)はトルコの言い分を支持し、米軍も露軍機が警告を受けていたことを確認した。ロシアの主張は信用性に欠けるのではないか。

ISIL is common enemy

It is important that Russia and Turkey stop their tit-for-tat criticism, restore calm to the situation and move toward preventing a recurrence.
 重要なのは、ロシアとトルコが批判の応酬をやめ、再発防止と事態の沈静化へ動くことだ。

Russia and a coalition of willing nations led by the United States continue to conduct independent airstrikes in Syria. Setting up lines of communication between these military forces is an urgent task to help prevent unexpected situations like the downing of the Russian plane.
 米国を中心とする有志連合とロシアは個別に、シリアで空爆を続けている。今回のような不測の事態を防ぐために、軍同士の連絡体制を整えることが急務である。

The international community should be concentrating on weakening ISIL, which is a common enemy. Countries with a stake in this matter also must avoid discussions that go in circles on ways to end Syria’s civil war and on a transition of political power.
 国際社会は、共通の敵である「イスラム国」の弱体化に集中すべきだ。シリア内戦終結と政権移行に向けた関係国の協議の空転も避けねばならない。

The U.N. Security Council recently unanimously adopted a resolution that calls on member states to fight terrorism and newly spells out the council’s determination to crush ISIL. Britain has indicated a plan to expand airstrikes in Syria, and France has strengthened its aggressive stance by deploying an aircraft carrier to the region.
 国連安全保障理事会はテロ防止決議を全会一致で採択し、「イスラム国」打倒の決意を新たにしたばかりだ。英国はシリアへの空爆拡大方針を示し、フランスは空母投入で攻撃態勢を強化した。

French President Francois Hollande has embarked on a rapid series of diplomatic summits as he seeks to build a wide-ranging coalition that includes Russia. Hollande and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Washington, and they agreed to deepen cooperation to combat ISIL. We attach great important to this chain of international cooperation.
 オランド仏大統領は、ロシアも含めた大包囲網の構築を目指し、活発な首脳外交に乗り出している。オバマ米大統領とワシントンで会談し、「イスラム国」対策で協力を深めることで一致した。一連の国際連携を大切にしたい。

Putin considers France to be an antiterrorism “ally” and is taking a cooperative stance on this point. He probably aims to get the United States and European nations to relax sanctions imposed on Russia due to its intervention in Ukraine, and to break Moscow’s international isolation.
 プーチン氏は、フランスを対テロの「同盟国」と位置づけ、協調姿勢を見せている。ウクライナ介入に伴う米欧の制裁緩和を実現させ、国際的孤立から脱却する狙いがあるのだろう。

However, Russia’s position does not appear to change with its aim to keep Assad in power while seizing the initiative in the Syrian situation through the use of force. Under these circumstances, it will be difficult for the United States and Europe to “fight together” alongside Russia.
 しかし、アサド政権を温存したまま、軍事力に頼ってシリア情勢で主導権を握ろうとする戦略に変化は見られない。これでは、米欧が「共闘」するのは難しい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 27, 2015)

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日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

2015-11-22 09:02:27 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Deepen Japan-U.S. cooperation to handle China’s maritime advances
日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

Japan and the United States must work closely together and play a leading role in both the political and economic fields to maintain order in Asia.
 アジアの秩序を守るため、日米両国が政治、経済両分野で緊密に連携して、主導的な役割を果たすことが肝要だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Manila and agreed to enhance mutual cooperation in dealing with issues related to artificial islands built by China in the South China Sea.
 安倍首相とオバマ米大統領がマニラで会談し、南シナ海での中国の人工島造成問題で、協力を強化することで一致した。

During the summit talks, Obama expressed his intention to continue the U.S. Navy’s patrol operations within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands. They will be carried out as routine activities, he said.
 オバマ氏は、米軍艦船が人工島の12カイリ内を巡視する作戦について「日常の行動として実行したい」と述べ、継続を表明した。

Abe expressed support for the U.S. patrol operations and told Obama he would “consider the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces conducting operations in the area while examining the impact of the situation on Japan’s national security.”
 首相は、作戦を支持し、南シナ海での自衛隊の活動に関して「日本の安全保障に与える影響を注視しつつ検討する」と述べた。

China must be stopped from carrying out large-scale reclamation in the area and turning the artificial islands into military bases based on self-serving logic in violation of international law. Japan and the United States have to cooperate with Southeast Asian nations and patiently call on China to exercise self-restraint and improve the situation.
 中国が国際法に反する独善的な論理を用い、大規模な埋め立てや軍事拠点化を進めることは阻止せねばならない。日米が東南アジア各国とも連携し、中国に粘り強く自制と改善を促す必要がある。

The U.S. Navy’s operations are significant to prevent China’s unilateral attempt to change the status quo from becoming established fact. Even if it is not participating in them, Japan should provide indirect support for the U.S. operations. The Maritime Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Navy have built strong mutual trust through joint exercises, and joint reconnaissance and surveillance operations, over a long period.
 中国の一方的な現状変更を既成事実化させないため、米軍の作戦は重要だ。日本も、作戦に参加しないまでも、側面支援はしたい。海上自衛隊と米海軍は長年、共同訓練や共同の警戒監視活動を通じて、強い信頼を築いてきた。

Japan must also try to help the navies and coast guards of the Philippines and other countries in the area develop their capabilities through official development assistance.
 政府開発援助(ODA)も活用し、フィリピンなど周辺国の海軍や海上保安機関の能力構築支援にも力を入れねばなるまい。

Abe pledges Futenma progress

Abe also told Obama that his administration would proceed resolutely with the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district. Obama thanked Abe and expressed his intention to work with Tokyo in returning U.S. military facilities in the prefecture to Japan, among other issues.
 米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設について、首相は「確固たる決意で進める」と表明した。オバマ氏は謝意を表し、米軍施設の返還などに協力する考えを示した。

It is important for Abe to maintain his stance of proceeding steadily with the relocation. Any attempt to seek an entirely new solution will further complicate the issue and only delay the removal of the dangers posed by the Futenma Air Station.
 大切なのは、安倍政権が移設を着実に進める姿勢を堅持することだ。新たな解決策を探ることは、問題を複雑にし、普天間飛行場の危険性除去を遅らせるだけだ。

Obama praised the passage of security-related laws in Japan, saying they are historic achievements. He also said the United States strongly supported the Japan-South Korea bilateral meeting that was achieved recently.
 オバマ氏は、安全保障関連法の成立について「歴史的業績だ」と高く評価した。日韓首脳会談の実現についても「強く支持する」と語った。

In reply, Abe expressed his intention to strengthen cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea to deal with North Korea’s nuclear and missile development.
首相は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題を踏まえ、日米韓の協力を強化する考えを示した。

The cooperation of the three countries is essential for security in the northeast Asian region. Japan and the United States must keep urging South Korea to take positive steps toward that goal.
 北東アジアの安全保障にとって日米韓の連携は不可欠だ。日米が韓国に前向きな対応を継続的に働きかけることが求められる。

Referring to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact, the prime minister said Japan and the United States’ leadership of the negotiations made it possible for the countries involved to reach a broad agreement. Obama said the TPP pact would drastically change the global environment and the next challenge was how the pact could be brought into effect and implemented.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)について首相は「日米が主導したからこそ、大筋合意ができた」と指摘した。オバマ氏は「TPPはグローバル環境を一変させる。課題は、協定の発効と実施の段階に持っていくことだ」と語った。

It is significant that Japan and the United States have led the formulation of free, fair and transparent rules on trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Taking the future expansion of participating countries into consideration, the countries concerned must try to ratify and implement the TPP pact as soon as possible.
 日米が、アジア太平洋地域の自由、公正で透明性のある貿易・投資ルールの確立を牽引けんいんした意義は大きい。参加国の拡大も視野に入れて、できるだけ早期の批准・発効を目指すことが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2015)

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APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

2015-11-21 06:57:53 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expansion of free trade framework must center around TPP pact
APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

Broadening high-level trade liberalization based on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement is indispensable to the further development of the world economy.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)をベースにした、高水準の貿易自由化を広げることが世界経済の発展に欠かせない。

A declaration was adopted Thursday at a summit meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, of which a major pillar is to speed up discussions about creating a “Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific” (FTAAP).
 アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議は、「アジア太平洋自由貿易圏(FTAAP)構想」の検討加速を柱とする首脳宣言を採択した。

The declaration stressed that the realization of the envisioned FTAAP “should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement.”
 宣言は、FTAAPに関して、「包括的な自由貿易協定として追求されるべきだ」と強調した。

The FTAAP would endeavor to economically integrate 21 countries and regions, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia. We welcome the fact that the APEC members — despite their widely different levels of economic development, ranging from industrially advanced to developing — have reconfirmed the importance of unifying trade rules.
 FTAAPは、日米中露など域内21か国・地域の経済統合を図る試みだ。先進国から途上国まで経済の発展段階が違うAPECメンバーがルールを統一する重要性を確認できたのは、歓迎できる。

If the broad agreements reached in the TPP negotiations, such as the abolition of tariffs and the application of fair and transparent trade rules, spread to nations outside the TPP, it will certainly invigorate the economic activities in the region.
 TPPで大筋合意した高いレベルの関税撤廃や、公正で透明な貿易ルールの適用がFTAAPでより多くの国々に広がれば、地域の経済活性化に弾みがつこう。

It is a cause for concern that China and Russia, which are not involved in the TPP, have reacted adversely to the envisaged economic integration centering on the TPP.
 懸念材料は、TPPに参加していない中露がTPPを軸にした経済統合に反発していることだ。

Chinese President Xi Jinping expressed caution in a lecture during the summit, saying: “With various new regional free trade arrangements cropping up, there have been worries about the potential of fragmentation.”
 中国の習近平国家主席は講演で「自由貿易の計画が次々と現れ、地域がバラバラになることを懸念している」と警戒感を示した。

Russian President Vladimir Putin wrote in an article ahead of the APEC summit that “the confidential fashion in which the TPP negotiations were conducted is probably not the best way to facilitate sustainable growth in the Asia-Pacific region.”
 ロシアのプーチン大統領も「TPPの秘密交渉スタイルは、地域の成長を促す最良の道ではない」とする論文を発表した。

U.S. Congress is key

One country after another has shown interest in taking part in the TPP, including South Korea and the Philippines. China and Russia, whose intentions to vie with the economic order led by the United States are now in jeopardy, have apparently taken steps to check the moves of other nations to become additional TPP members.
 韓国やフィリピンなどの参加検討表明が相次いでいる。中露は、米国主導の経済秩序に対抗する目論もくろ見みが危うくなったため、新規参入の動きを牽制けんせいしたのだろう。

China is poised to seek the region’s economic integration based on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which it has been negotiating with countries including Japan, South Korea and India. The United States is not a party to RCEP negotiations.
 中国は、日韓やインドなどと交渉中の東アジア地域包括的経済連携(RCEP)を基礎に経済統合を目指す考えだ。米国は交渉に参加していない。

However, the tariff abolition targets being sought in the RCEP initiative are lower than those under the TPP. It has been pointed out that the RCEP talks have yet to make progress regarding such matters as environmental protection and human and intellectual property rights, while TPP member countries and businesses are required to comply with standards regarding those matters.
 だが、RCEPは、TPPに比べ、目標とする関税撤廃率が低い。TPPが締結国の政府や企業に求めた環境や人権、知的財産権などへの配慮についても、議論がまだ進んでいないとされる。

To ensure fair and free economic activity, it is more desirable to have the TPP rules accepted as international standards.
 公正で自由な経済活動を確保するには、TPPルールを国際標準とする方が望ましい。

It was right that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at the APEC summit: “Japan hereafter will energetically pour our efforts into expanding the TPP.” By cooperating with such countries as Australia, Japan must play a leading role in the RCEP negotiation process — in which the United States is absent — with the aim of bringing its levels of trade liberalization closer to those of the TPP.
 安倍首相が「日本は今後、TPPを広める取り組みに注力する」と語ったのは適切だ。豪州などと連携して、米国不在のRCEP交渉をリードし、自由化の水準をTPPに近づけねばならない。

It is worrying that rough sailing is expected regarding the ratification of the TPP by the U.S. Congress. In addition to objections from the Republican Party, trade unions, which are the support base for the Democratic Party, have also been intensifying their resistance toward the TPP.
 気がかりなのは、TPPの批准が、米国で難航しそうなことである。野党の共和党に加え、与党・民主党でも、支持層の労働組合が反対を強めている。

The TPP cannot be put into force without ratification by the United States. We hope the U.S. administration will strenuously tackle the challenge in Congress.
 米国が批准しないと、TPPは発効しない。米政府は議会対策に精力的に取り組んでほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 20, 2015)

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