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2015-02-22 09:07:25 | アドセンス

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ギリシャ支援 危機回避へ延長が不可欠だ

2015-02-19 10:21:37 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Extension of bailout program for Greece essential to avoid European debt crisis
ギリシャ支援 危機回避へ延長が不可欠だ

Can a possible flare-up of the European sovereign debt crisis be prevented? Tensions are building over the current situation.
A meeting of the 19 finance ministers of the eurozone on how Greece can meet its debt commitments ended without an accord.

European creditors asserted that Greece would apply to extend the current bailout program for six months on condition that it would maintain tight budgetary discipline.

But Greek Finance Minister Yanis Varoufakis rejected this, saying the current bailout program had failed to stabilize the Greek economy.

Eurozone creditors plan to hold more talks with Greece, possibly on Friday, to reach an agreement, but the views of Greece and other eurozone nations remain far apart.

At this point, it is uncertain whether the current bailout program, which ends on Feb. 28, can be maintained.

Should the bailout be discontinued, Greece will face a lack of funds, raising the risk of the country defaulting on its debts.

If the sovereign debt crisis worsens, not only would the Greek economy go bankrupt but the economy of the entire eurozone would eventually plunge into a financial quagmire. Extending the bailout program is essential to avoid seriously affecting the world economy.

Greece must endure the pain of tightening its budgetary belt in return for financing from other eurozone countries, which helped Greece pay the price of its own loose fiscal discipline over many years.

The Coalition of the Radical Left, led by Alexis Tsipras — now prime minister — won the general election last month and came to power after adopting an anti-austerity position.

By honoring its campaign pledge, the ruling coalition may have no other recourse but to reject the austerity program presented by creditor countries.

Lack of strong industries

Except for tourism and agriculture, the Greek economy has had no strong industries for many years, while the ratio of public service workers to the total working population is high.

As a result of the Greek government’s handling of the economy, which relies heavily on fiscal spending, its society lost much of its vigor, with its debts mounting due to increasing expenditures and sluggish tax revenues.

To revitalize Greece, there is no other way but to restructure the nation’s fiscal discipline in accordance with the bailout program of the European Union and other entities, while drastically reforming its inefficient economic structure.

In some other eurozone countries, political parties advocating “anti-austerity” stances are gaining public support, as was seen in Greece.

Worried that loose fiscal discipline may spread to countries in southern Europe and elsewhere, the EU is strongly pressing Greece to toe the austerity line.

Should the bailout talks collapse completely, Greece’s departure from the eurozone will become a real possibility. As this would undermine confidence in the euro system, such a situation must be avoided.

The EU should explore compromises such as easing the terms for repayment, while maintaining, in principle, the current bailout framework.

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 18, 2015)


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2015-02-12 10:29:07 | 英字新聞

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社説:旅券返納命令 前例にしてはならない

2015-02-11 09:52:55 | 英字新聞

February 10, 2015(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Exercise prudence in restricting overseas travel
社説:旅券返納命令 前例にしてはならない

Passports serve as the most effective official identification cards for their bearers when they travel overseas. The Foreign Ministry describes passports on its website as the second most important things for their bearers next only to their lives. Therefore, the ministry's confiscation of the passport of a freelance photographer who had planned to visit Syria in late February to gather news should not be regarded as a precedent.
The ministry took the action under Article 19 of the Passport Act, which allows authorities to order individuals to return their passports if it is necessary to force them to call off their planned overseas trips to protect their lives or assets. This is the first time that the clause has been invoked to confiscate a passport since the law came into force in 1951.

Article 22 of the Constitution guarantees citizens the freedom to travel overseas along with the freedom to change their residence and choose their occupation as their inherent rights. Moreover, freedom of the press is inevitable in a democratic society, which is guaranteed by journalists' news-gathering activities.

On the other hand, the ruthless Islamic State (IS) militant group now rules some areas of Syria. The photographer had intended to go to northern Syria in a bid to cover refugee camps and other places that are not under the rule of the militants. However, it would be almost impossible to completely eliminate risks of being targeted by the militants.
 他方でシリアは、イスラム過激派組織「イスラム国」(IS=Islamic State)がまだら状に支配している。カメラマンはシリア北部に入り、ISの支配下にない難民キャンプなどを取材するつもりだったというが、リスクを完全に遮断できるとは思えない。

The IS has released the painful images of two Japanese hostages, whom the group claims it has murdered, and threatened to target any Japanese national wherever they are. Should the photographer be confined by the Islamic State group, it would not only endanger his life but also adversely affect Japan's diplomatic policies. In the latest hostage crisis, the Jordanian government got involved in the case, demonstrating that the adverse effects of terrorism could spread to the international community.

The photographer's plan to visit Syria was reported by some media outlets after the hostage crisis came to a tragic end. It was only natural that the Foreign Ministry urged the photographer to call off his trip, considering that the timing of his planned visit to Syria was so close to the time of the recent hostage crisis and that if he were to be attacked by terrorists, it would have a serious political impact on Japan.

What is regrettable is how the ministry forced the photographer to cancel his trip.

The fact that the Foreign Ministry had never ordered anyone to return their passports under Article 19 of the Passport Act highlights the seriousness of the impact of such an order. Without a passport, it is impossible for anyone to travel overseas. As such, the ministry should have sought other methods to avoid forcibly imposing restrictions on the freedom to travel overseas guaranteed by the Constitution, though there was little time to act.

The Foreign Ministry has so far urged members of the public to refrain from visiting certain countries or evacuate depending on the countries' levels of danger. There are calls within the ruling coalition for more effective measures to force members of the public to refrain from visiting dangerous countries or areas. However, such measures would allow the government to intervene more deeply in people's daily lives under the pretext of protecting Japanese nationals. It could also lead to indirect media regulations.

The government should exercise prudence in restricting Japanese nationals' overseas travel and treat the latest measure as an exception.

毎日新聞 2015年02月10日 02時30分



2015-02-09 11:44:27 | 英字新聞

<p>「10年前、日本人青年がイラクで人質となって斬首殺害されたとき、とても大きな衝撃を受けた」<br />10年前のイラク日本人青年殺害事件とは2004年10月に発生した、国際的テロ集団であるアルカーイダの有力者であるヨルダン人幹部アブー=ムスアブ・アッ=ザルカーウィーが率いているとされるイラクの聖戦アルカーイダ組織を名乗るグループによって日本人青年(当時24歳)、香田証生(こうだしょうせい)さんが殺された事件なんです。<br />テロリストの要求に従って自衛隊を撤退させれば、命は奪われなかったのかもしれません。小泉首相が対応しました。<br />(スラチャイ)</p>

<p>February 08, 2015(Mainichi Japan)<br />Kaleidoscope of the heart: News-induced trauma<br />香山リカのココロの万華鏡:ニュースからのトラウマ /東京</p>

<p>The abduction of Japanese nationals by the so-called "Islamic State" militant group ended in the worst way possible. Moreover, people who watched the videos or listened to the recorded messages associated with this incident likely experienced an enormous amount of fear.<br /> 過激派組織「イスラム国」による日本人人質事件は最悪の結末となった。公開された映像や音声メッセージを見たり聴いたりして、大きな恐怖感を抱いた人もいるのではないだろうか。</p>

<p>An increasing number of my clients have told me that they became afraid after watching the news regarding these recent events. In terms of figures, this is in fact the highest number of patients who have reported such feelings to me since the time period following the Great East Japan Earthquake.<br />診察室では「ニュースを見て恐ろしくなった」という声をしばしば耳にするが、単純な件数で言えばその訴えは東日本大震災以来の多さであった。<br />    <br />Parents with children have also asked me, "Is it okay to let our kids watch the news about these types of incidents that involve hostage-taking and killing?"<br /> 子どもを持つ親からは「人質の拘束や殺害といったニュースをわが子に見せてよいのか」という質問もあった。</p>

<p>My response in such cases has been, "Don't let your children watch the videos -- but it is probably a good idea if you do show them the newspaper articles and explain to them what occurred."<br />私は「なるべく映像は見せず、新聞を見せながら“こんなことが起きている”と親の言葉で説明してあげるのがよいのではないか」とこたえている。</p>

<p>I also commented via Internet channels that "children should be protected from the trauma of such shocking videos." This statement was met with numerous objections, however, from people saying things like, "Don't look away from reality," or "Don't prevent children from finding out information that they wish to know about," or "Hiding these televised images from children is counterproductive, since they will just go and try to find them on the Internet."<br /> ネットでも「ショッキングな映像によるトラウマから子どもを守って」と発信した。するとかなりの数の人たちから反論が寄せられた。「事実から目を背けさせるな」「子どもの知りたい欲求を阻害するな」「テレビの映像を隠せばネットで見ようとするから逆効果」といった意見だ。</p>

<p>I agree that it is never good to overly conceal or distort the truth -- even when we are talking about children. It is also clear that we must not attempt to shield our children from media or news reports that we find shocking. To the contrary, the recent incident could provide an opportunity for a very meaningful experience in terms of parents and children sitting down together in front of an atlas and discussing together what happened.<br /> たしかに、いくら相手が子どもだからといって、事実を隠しすぎたりゆがめたりすることは良くない。すべての刺激的な報道やニュースから子どもを遠ざければよい、というわけでもないのは確かだ。それに、親子で地図帳を開きながらこの件をきっかけにいろいろな話ができれば、逆にとても有意義な経験となるだろう。</p>

<p>At the same time, however, recent research has revealed cases whereby people -- particularly children -- have experienced trauma from seeing images from disasters and incidents that occurred in far-away places, after they were broadcast on sources including television. <br /> しかし、最近の研究で、とくに子どもにとっては、遠いところで起きた災害や事件も、テレビなどでの映像によってトラウマになる場合があるとわかっている。</p>

<p>I have additionally heard compelling comments from university students who told me, "I suffered an enormous shock 10 years ago when a young Japanese man was taken hostage and killed in Iraq -- and all of that fear just came flooding back to me again on the occasion of the recent hostage-taking incident."<br />実際に大学では学生たちから、「10年前、日本人青年がイラクで人質となって殺害されたとき、とても大きな衝撃を受けた。今回の件でそのときの恐怖がまざまざとよみがえった」という切実な声も聞いた。</p>

<p>At the time, those students would have been elementary school and junior high school-aged students. <br />彼らはそのとき小学生から中学生。</p>

<p>Images of the Japanese youth being kidnapped and killed have a different impact upon young minds than upon adults -- and some of these young students likely did indeed experience lingering trauma as a result.<br />日本の若者がとらわれ、亡くなるというニュースや映像をおとなとはまた違った受け取り方をして、中にはそれがトラウマとなって残った人もいるのだろう。</p>

<p>The question of how much shocking news should be shown to children is one that should be considered carefully in each individual household. <br /> 基本的には、衝撃的なニュースをどれくらい子どもに見せるかについては、それぞれの家庭でよく考え、決めればよい。</p>

<p>This does not mean, however, simply showing children such images in a point-blank manner. <br />ただ、何でも事実を包み隠さずに見せればよい、というわけではない。</p>

<p>Rather, we must know that we have the choice to avoid such images in order to protect our own mental stability. This goes for adults, moreover, just as much as children.<br />これはおとなでも同じで、私たちには「見ないことで心の安定を保つ」という選択もあるのだ。</p>

<p>In my view, praying for the souls of the dead -- while also protecting the feelings of oneself and one's family -- is another way through which we can work against terrorism. <br />犠牲となった方たちの冥福を祈りつつ、「自分や家族の心を守るのもテロに屈しないこと」と考えたい。</p>

<p>(精神科医)<br />(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)<br />毎日新聞 2015年02月03日 地方版</p>