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日中国交40年 「互恵」再構築へ長期戦略を

2012-09-30 02:24:51 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 29, 2012)
Long-range strategy a must for Japan-China reciprocity
日中国交40年 「互恵」再構築へ長期戦略を(9月28日付・読売社説)

 ◆外交力の発揮で事態悪化防げ◆

When diplomatic relations were established between Japan and China in 1972, who could have imagined the relationship would become as strained as it is now?
 日中両国が国交を樹立した時、これほどまで関係が険悪になると誰が予想しただろうか。

Saturday marks the 40th anniversary of the signing of a joint declaration by then Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in Beijing. Despite the importance of the milestone, events celebrating Japan-China ties have been canceled or suspended one after another.
 訪中した田中角栄首相が周恩来首相と共同声明に調印してから、29日で40年になる。節目の年なのに、記念行事が次々打ち切られている。

Boycotts of Japanese goods have spread in China, and the bilateral relationship is in an unprecedentedly grave situation. There are no signs that Chinese protests against Japan's decision to nationalize the Senkaku Islands will subside anytime soon.
 中国では日本製品の不買運動も広がっている。かつてない深刻な事態だ。尖閣諸島国有化への中国の反発は収束する気配がない。

Rocky relations between the world's No. 2 and No. 3 economies are bound to have an adverse effect on the region as well as the global economy.
 しかし、世界第2、3位の経済大国の不正常な関係は周辺地域や世界経済にも悪影響を与える。

How should Japan deal with China? First, it must map out and execute a long-range strategy for normalizing relations.
日本は今後、中国とどう向き合っていくか。関係の正常化へ長期的な戦略が欠かせない。

===

A political, economic chill
 ◆「政冷経冷」の対日意識◆

Among the anti-Japan demonstrations that have occurred recently in China, the event that best symbolizes the bleak state of bilateral ties was the attack on a Panasonic Corp. factory by a violent mob.
 中国各地で起きた反日デモの中で、パナソニックの工場が暴徒に襲われた事件ほど、日中の寒々しい現状を象徴するものはない。

Panasonic has played a pioneering role among Japanese firms in expanding its operations in China.
 パナソニックは中国進出の先駆的企業である。

A meeting in 1978 between Konosuke Matsushita, the founder of the current Panasonic, and visiting Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping served as a catalyst for expansion by Japanese companies in China. In the meeting, Deng asked Matsushita to support China's development with both technology and business management.
1978年、来日したトウ小平副首相が創業者の松下幸之助氏と会い、中国発展のために技術、経営面での支援を求めたことがきっかけとなった。

In the wake of the meeting, Japanese firms rushed to establish offices in China, which created many jobs. In addition, the Japanese government continued to loan China yen until fiscal 2007.
 その後、多くの企業が中国で事業を拡大し、雇用も生んできた。日本は2007年度まで円借款を供与し続けた。

There is no doubt the assistance of the Japanese government and companies strengthened China's economic fundamentals and helped China's economy surpass even that of Japan's in terms of gross domestic product.
 それが中国の経済基盤を強化し、国内総生産(GDP)が日本を上回るほどに成長する一助となったことは間違いない。

Japan's cooperation with China, however, is largely unknown to the ordinary people of China.
 だが、日本の協力姿勢は中国国内でほとんど認識されていない。

On the contrary, China in the 1990s strengthened patriotic education in its schools, inculcating anti-Japan sentiment and spreading attitudes downplaying Japan's role among the Chinese public even as the economy developed.
それどころか、90年代に反日の愛国教育が強まり、経済発展に伴って日本軽視の風潮が広がった。

This state of mind appears to be intensifying in China, allowing the current political and economic chill in the bilateral relationship.
 中国では、対日関係は政治も経済も低調な「政冷経冷」で構わないとの意識が強まっている。

Nevertheless, it should never be forgotten that the economies of Japan and China have grown deeply intertwined.
 しかし、日中両国は経済的に不即不離の関係にある。

The two countries have established a system of international division of labor in which China imports industrial parts from Japan to assemble into finished products. These are then marketed domestically in China or exported to the United States, Europe and elsewhere. Both sides must not forget this fact.
日本から輸入した部品を中国で最終製品に組み立て、中国国内で販売したり、欧米などに輸出したりする国際分業体制が築かれている。そのことを忘れてはなるまい。

===

Strengthen coast guard
 ◆尖閣で必要な海保強化◆

The root cause of problems surrounding the Senkaku Islands lies in China's unilateral assertion of a groundless claim to the islets in the 1970s, but only after learning that the area of the East China Sea around the islands might contain rich oil resources.
 尖閣諸島問題の根源は、周辺海域に石油があることを知った中国が70年代、根拠もない領有権を一方的に主張したことにある。

At a press conference when the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and China came into effect in 1978, Deng said, "It does not matter if this question [the dispute over the Senkaku Islands] is shelved for some time," thus proposing leaving the issue to future generations to solve.
 トウ小平氏は78年、日中平和友好条約発効の際の記者会見で、尖閣問題について「一時棚上げにしても構わない」と語り、解決を次世代に委ねる意向を表明した。

However, China in 1992 enacted its Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone, which specifies that the islands belong to China. More recently, China has caused friction to flare by repeatedly sending surveillance ships to the waters around the islands.
 だが、中国は、92年には尖閣領有を明記した領海法を制定し、近年は、監視船を尖閣諸島近海に再三派遣するなど事あるごとに日本との摩擦を引き起こしてきた。

The recent nationalization of some of the Senkaku Islands is merely a transfer of ownership from a private citizen to the central government. China may have been angered because the purchase took place shortly after Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda met with Chinese President Hu Jintao in Vladivostok, Russia, but China's ire has been greater than Japan expected.
 尖閣諸島の国有化は、所有権が民間人から政府に移転するだけのことである。ロシア・ウラジオストクで野田首相と胡錦濤国家主席が会った直後に、国有化したことが中国を刺激した面はあるが、中国の反発は予想を超えていた。

At a recent meeting between Foreign Minister Koichiro Gemba and his Chinese counterpart Yang Jiechi in New York, Yang called Japan's nationalization of the islands a "denial" of the outcome of "the anti-fascist war," by which he meant China's victory over Japan in World War II.
 日中外相会談で中国側が国有化を「反ファシズム戦争勝利の成果を否定するものだ」と指摘し、

We see Yang's attempt to associate the islands with unrelated historical events as extremely far-fetched.
無関係な歴史問題と絡めたのは、あまりに牽強(けんきょう)付会(ふかい)だ。

Japan should not stand idly by while China battles for world opinion by vehemently criticizing Japan over nonexistent "faults."
 ありもしない日本の「非」を世界に言い募る中国の「世論戦」に日本は手をこまねいてはいられない。

Noda, speaking before the U.N. General Assembly in New York on Wednesday, said, "Any attempt by a nation to achieve its ideology or claims through the unilateral threat or use of force is absolutely unacceptable." We see this view as eminently reasonable.
野田首相が国連演説で、中国を念頭に「一方的な力や威嚇を用いる試みは受け入れられない」と主張したのは、当然である。

China recently launched its first aircraft carrier. The country's policy of expanding its military is sure to continue under its new leadership and will likely be promoted more strongly than ever.
 中国初の空母も就役した。軍拡路線は、近く発足する新指導部へ引き継がれ、より強力に進められよう。

If effective control over the Senkaku Islands were lost, it would be extremely difficult to regain. Therefore, the government must set as its highest priority the strengthening of the Japan Coast Guard's capabilities to counter any infringement on the nation's sovereignty.
 尖閣諸島で実効支配をいったん失ってしまえば、取り戻すのは非常に困難となる。主権を侵害する行為を排除できるよう海上保安庁の体制強化に国を挙げて取り組むことが最優先である。

Needless to say, a military confrontation must be avoided at all costs. The deployment of the MV-22 Osprey aircraft to the U.S. Marine Corps' Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture is an important part of boosting deterrence toward China.
 無論、軍事的対立は何としても避けなければならない。米海兵隊が新型輸送機オスプレイを沖縄に配備することも、対中抑止力を強める意味で重要である。

===

Achieve prosperity together
 ◆経済・環境で共栄を◆

Since several years ago, beginning with the Cabinet of then Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Japan had held talks with China over the joint development of gas fields in the East China Sea from the standpoint of fostering a "strategically reciprocal relationship" so both nations could live in harmony and prosperity.
 安倍内閣以降、日中両国はウィンウィン(共存共栄)を意味する「戦略的互恵関係」を基軸に東シナ海のガス田共同開発協議などを進めた。

However, "reciprocal" ties have been stalled since a Chinese fishing vessel rammed JCG patrol vessels off the Senkaku Islands in 2010.
だが、10年の尖閣諸島沖の漁船衝突事件後、暗礁に乗り上げている。

Thorough preparations are essential to rebuilding the reciprocal relationship. The government must inform China through various channels that it is willing to cooperate, not only in the industrial and tourism sectors and in enhancing agricultural productivity, but also in areas such as energy efficiency and environmental protection.
 互恵関係を立て直すには周到な準備が欠かせない。日中双方が産業・観光振興、農業の生産性向上の分野だけではなく、省エネや環境対策などの分野でも協力し合えることを、様々なパイプを駆使して、中国に伝えるべきだ。

Close cooperation with the United States is also vital in improving the Japan-China relationship, as is strategic diplomacy by reinforcing ties with neighbors, including India, Russia and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
 米国との緊密な連携も日中関係の改善を図るには不可欠だ。同時に東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)、インド、ロシアなど、周辺国との関係を強化し、戦略的に対中外交を展開する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 28, 2012)
(2012年9月28日01時12分  読売新聞)

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安倍自民新総裁 政権奪還への政策力を高めよ

2012-09-29 05:39:25 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 28, 2012)
Abe should enhance policymaking capability to retake reins of govt
安倍自民新総裁 政権奪還への政策力を高めよ(9月27日付・読売社説)

 ◆保守志向が再登板の追い風に◆

Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's "retry" comes with a heavy task--retaking the reins of government.
 政権奪還という重い課題を担っての「再チャレンジ」である。

Abe was elected president of the Liberal Democratic Party on Wednesday, defeating four contenders, including former LDP Policy Research Council Chairman Shigeru Ishiba.
 自民党総裁選は、安倍晋三元首相が、石破茂前政調会長ら4氏を破り、新総裁に選出された。

Ishiba won the first round of the race by securing a majority of local chapters' votes, but Abe turned the tables in a runoff in which only Diet members were eligible to vote.
 第1回投票では、石破氏が地方票の過半数を獲得して1位となったが、国会議員による決選投票で安倍氏が逆転した。

Depending on the results of the next House of Representatives election, it is highly likely that Abe will become prime minister. After winning the presidential election, Abe expressed his resolve, saying: "I'll make all-out efforts to retake the reins of government. I'll make a strong Japan." He needs to devise a strategy and policy to revive the nation starting now.
 安倍氏は、次期衆院選の結果次第では首相に就任する可能性が大きい。当選後のあいさつでは「政権奪還に向けて全力を尽くす。強い日本をつくる」と、決意を表明した。今から日本再生への戦略と政策を練る必要がある。

===

Senkaku issue changes race
 ◆「尖閣」で地方票に変化◆

The fact that the runoff was fought by Abe and Ishiba, neither of whom head their own faction, illustrates the changes in LDP presidential elections, which in the past were characterized by alliances of intra-party factions.
 派閥の代表ではない安倍、石破両氏が決選投票を争ったことは、派閥の合従連衡による総裁選からの変化をうかがわせる。

Initially, LDP Secretary General Nobuteru Ishihara was seen as the likeliest to win the LDP presidency, but Abe and Ishiba expanded their support among local rank-and-file members. This is obviously related to China's high-handed behavior toward Japan over the Senkaku Islands.
 当初は石原伸晃幹事長が有力視されたが、安倍、石破両氏が地方の党員に支持を広げた。これは総裁選のさなか、中国が尖閣諸島を巡って日本に高圧的な外交を展開したことと無縁ではない。

During the presidential election campaign, Abe and Ishiba stressed the importance of diplomacy and security policy, saying they will resolutely protect Japan's land and territorial waters.
 両氏とも総裁選では、日本の領土・領海を「断固として守る」と訴え、外交・安全保障政策の重要性を強調した。

However, we cannot expect sticking to a hard-line stance to improve Japan's relationship with China.
 しかし、中国に強硬一辺倒の姿勢では関係改善は望めない。

When he was prime minister, Abe rebuilt the relationship with China, which had deteriorated under the Cabinet of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. Abe agreed with Beijing to seek a "mutually beneficial relationship based on common strategic interests."
 安倍氏は首相時代に、小泉内閣で悪化した対中関係を立て直し、中国と「戦略的互恵関係」を目指すことで合意した。

Amid growing anti-Japan sentiment in China after the Japanese government's purchase of three of the Senkaku Islands, concrete measures to rebuild the Japan-China relationship are now called for again.
尖閣諸島国有化で中国の反日機運が高まる中、日中関係を再構築する具体策が改めて求められている。

Abe indicated that he will work on strengthening the Japan-U.S. alliance by enabling Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense and also that he would work to amend the Constitution. In addition, he has a favorable attitude toward reviewing a 1993 statement concerning so-called comfort women, which was issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono.
 安倍氏は、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にすることによる日米同盟の強化や、憲法改正に取り組む考えを示している。いわゆる従軍慰安婦問題に関する「河野談話」の見直しにも前向きだ。

These are all reasonable aspirations. We urge Abe to present concrete steps to realize them.
 いずれも妥当な考え方である。実現に向けて、具体的な道筋を示してもらいたい。

It was unfortunate that there was little in-depth discussion on the challenges Japan currently faces during the party presidential race.
 総裁選で残念だったのは、日本の直面する課題について、踏み込んだ議論が乏しかったことだ。

===

Show clear stance on TPP, energy
 ◆TPP・原発政策示せ◆

Regarding the issue of whether to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement, Abe has been wary of clarifying his stance. "We first have to enhance our bargaining power. Then we should consider whether [joining the TPP] would serve the interests of the nation," he said.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)参加問題で、安倍氏は「交渉力を強めた上で、国益を守れるかどうか考えないといけない」と慎重な発言に終始した。

A considerable number of LDP members oppose Japan's joining the TPP, so we assume Abe was concerned about the opinion of such lawmakers. However, if Abe really plans to lead the party in regaining power from the Democratic Party of Japan, he must prepare measures to enhance the competitiveness of the nation's agricultural sector and pave the way for the nation to join negotiations for the TPP.
 党内に根強いTPP参加反対論に配慮したのだろうが、政権奪還を目指すなら、農業の競争力強化策をまとめ、交渉参加への環境を整えなければならない。

On the energy issue, it was appropriate for him to express negative views on the DPJ-led government's "zero nuclear" policy. However, that is not enough.
 エネルギー問題でも、政府・民主党の「原発ゼロ」方針に否定的な見解を示したのは適切だったにせよ、それだけでは不十分だ。

Abe should lead discussions within the party over an energy policy capable of securing a stable supply of electricity for the nation--a purpose for which safe nuclear power plants are necessary--and come up with a viable counterproposal.
 安全な原発は活用し、電力を安定供給できるエネルギー政策について党内で議論を深め、責任ある対案を打ち出すべきである。

Six years ago, Abe became the first Japanese born after World War II to assume the post of prime minister. Under the slogan of "departing from the postwar regime," he revised the Fundamental Law of Education and upgraded the Defense Agency to the Defense Ministry. His other achievements include the enactment of the National Referendum Law, which stipulated procedures to amend the Constitution.
 安倍氏は6年前、戦後生まれで初の首相となった。「戦後レジーム(体制)からの脱却」を掲げ、教育基本法を改正し、防衛庁を省に格上げした。憲法改正手続きを定めた国民投票法も成立させるなど実績を上げている。

However, under his leadership, the LDP suffered a humiliating defeat in the House of Councillors election in July 2007, which divided the Diet as opposition parties took control of the upper house. Soon after the election, Abe resigned from his post.
 しかし、2007年7月の参院選に惨敗し、衆参ねじれ国会を生んだ。

It is now said that one of the reasons Abe decided to quit was a chronic disease--ulcerative colitis--but the abrupt resignation left a strong impression with the public that Abe had irresponsibly thrown away his administration.
その後の突然の辞任は、潰瘍性大腸炎という持病が一因とされるが、政権を無責任に投げ出した印象が強く残っている。

Abe will be tested on whether he can wipe away his negative image of being plagued with health problems and a lack of vigor.
 安倍氏には、「健康不安」やひ弱なイメージを払拭できるかどうかが、問われよう。

Abe's first task as new LDP president will be to appoint new party executives.
 新総裁として最初に取り組むのは党役員人事である。

In the first round of the presidential race, Ishiba secured a majority of votes cast by local chapters. At a press conference held after being chosen as the new president, Abe said he will "take this fact seriously." The results showed that Ishiba is highly popular at the local level. It would be reasonable for Abe to give him an important post.
 安倍氏は、総裁就任後の記者会見で、石破氏が党員票の過半数を獲得したことについて「重く受け止めなければならない」と述べた。石破氏には地方に圧倒的な支持のあることが裏付けられた。要職に起用するのは理解できる。

During his time as prime minister, Abe was criticized for appointing too many of his sworn friends and aides to important Cabinet posts. We would like to carefully watch to whom Abe will give senior party posts.
 安倍氏は首相時代に内閣の要職を盟友や側近で固め、批判を浴びた。今回、党役員にどういう人材を登用するかも注目したい。

===

Avoid unproductive confrontations
 ◆解散で「紳士協定」を◆

How Abe will steer the LDP in the next extraordinary Diet session will be important in determining his fate as the new leader.
 重要なのは、次期臨時国会での対応である。

The ordinary Diet session closed earlier this month after the upper house adopted an opposition-backed censure motion against Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda. The LDP has said the fact that the upper house has adopted the censure motion will carry over to the next Diet session. However, Abe showed a flexible attitude on the censure motion at the press conference, saying that his party will not necessarily refuse to participate in all Diet deliberations.
 先の通常国会は、参院で野田首相の問責決議を可決したまま閉会した。これまで自民党は問責の効力が次の国会にも及ぶとしてきたが、安倍氏は記者会見で、一切審議を拒否するわけではないと柔軟な姿勢を示した。

It seems that Abe wants to hold Noda to his promise to dissolve the lower house "sometime soon," which the LDP regards as a gentlemen's agreement, in exchange for the LDP's cooperating with the Noda administration on such matters as the passage of a special bill that enables the government to issue deficit-covering bonds in the extraordinary Diet session. We believe this is a constructive approach.
 赤字国債発行のための特例公債法案の成立などに協力する代わりに、野田首相が約束した「近いうち」の衆院解散を「紳士協定」として確認したい考えのようだ。建設的な提案だと評価できる。

Abe was plagued by a divided Diet when he was the prime minister. It is time to put an end to unproductive confrontations between the ruling and opposition parties, such as opposition parties refusing to participate in Diet deliberations and justifying it with the passage of a censure motion, and political paralysis caused by such confrontations.
 安倍氏自身、首相時代にねじれ国会に悩まされた。参院の問責決議を理由にした審議拒否など不毛な与野党対立や政治の停滞には、もう終止符を打つ時である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 27, 2012)
(2012年9月27日01時30分  読売新聞)

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中台の領海侵入 示威行動に動ぜず冷静対処を

2012-09-28 04:16:18 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 27, 2012)
Japan should not be perturbed by recent territorial intrusions
中台の領海侵入 示威行動に動ぜず冷静対処を(9月26日付・読売社説)

China and Taiwan are stepping up pressure on Japan over the Senkaku Islands. The government must remain unshaken by this, and should seek to calm the situation through levelheaded diplomacy as soon as possible.
 尖閣諸島を巡って中国と台湾が対日圧力を高めている。政府は、これに動じることなく、冷静な外交によって事態の沈静化を急ぐべきである。

A week has passed since China sent about 10 surveillance ships at one time to areas around the Senkaku Islands. China has repeatedly intruded into Japan's territorial waters, making such surveillance activities appear to be routine operations.
 中国が尖閣諸島近くに10隻前後の監視船を送り込んでから1週間が経過した。監視活動を常態化させ、日本の領海への侵入を繰り返している。

On Tuesday, about 40 Taiwan fishing boats and 12 patrol ships entered Japan's territorial waters. The Taiwan vessels departed after Japan Coast Guard patrol ships took measures against the intruders, such as spraying water at fishing boats.
 25日には、台湾の漁船約40隻と巡視船12隻が領海に入った。海上保安庁の巡視船による漁船への放水などで、台湾側は退去した。

Taiwan and China in succession started claiming territorial rights over the Senkaku Islands during the 1970s. If the government allows Taiwan and China to enter Japan's territorial waters with impunity, the nation's effective control of the islands might be shaken.
 尖閣諸島に関しては、台湾、中国が1970年代に相次いで領有権を主張し始めた。その中台が領海に侵入するような事態を放置すれば、日本の実効支配体制が揺らぐことになりかねない。

The government must address the issue with precautions and countermeasures. To maintain maritime order, surveillance by JCG patrol ships and other means must be strengthened as much as possible.
 政府は警戒と対策が必要だ。海洋秩序を維持するため、海保の巡視船などによる監視体制を最大限強化しなければならない。

===

Enforcement must be firm

With the enforcement of the revised law on navigation of foreign ships, the JCG is now allowed to issue an order for foreign fishing boats operating in Japan's territorial waters to exit without boarding the vessels. It is essential to eliminate illegal actions more quickly and effectively than before and demonstrate the nation's determination to protect its sovereignty.
 改正外国船舶航行法の施行によって、海保は領海内を動き回る外国漁船に対し、立ち入り検査なしに退去を命令できるようになった。より迅速かつ効果的に違法行為を排除し、主権を守る姿勢を示すことが重要である。

Since the government placed the Senkaku Islands under state ownership, China has continued making outrageous responses.
 日本が尖閣諸島を国有化して以降、度を越した中国の反発が続いている。

China has called off exchange events with Japan in economic, cultural and sports fields one after another. A major memorial event to mark the 40th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China, scheduled for Thursday, has been canceled. So has a visit to China by a Japanese business organization. This is an unusual situation.
 日本との経済や文化、スポーツ交流は続々と停止された。27日に予定されていた国交正常化40周年記念式典は中止され、日本の経済団体の訪中も取りやめとなった。異常な事態である。

These unilateral actions will undermine the international reputation of China itself. Further deterioration in Japan-China relations will only leave scars that will be hard to erase, and the situation will become much more difficult to heal.
 こうした一方的な措置は、中国自身の国際的評価を貶(おとし)めよう。日中関係のこれ以上の悪化は両国に拭いがたい傷を残し、修復を一層困難とするだけだ。

===

Clear understanding needed

The fact that Japan has effectively controlled the Senkaku Islands has not been properly conveyed to the Chinese people due to Beijing's control of the media in that nation. We suspect the Chinese people do not understand what Japan's "nationalization" of the islands means.
 日本が尖閣諸島を実効支配してきた事実は、中国の報道規制で国民にきちんと伝わっていない。中国国民は「国有化」の意味を理解していないのではないか。

China is stepping up its diplomatic offensive as well. It has released a white paper to justify its territorial claim to the Senkaku Islands. In doing so, Beijing apparently aims to make its case in the court of world opinion.
 中国は外交攻勢も強めている。自らの尖閣諸島領有の主張を正当化する「白書」を発表した。世界にアピールするのが狙いだ。

Japan, for its part, needs to make other nations properly understand what has happened with the Senkaku Islands and how calmly Japan has dealt with the issue.
 日本も、尖閣問題の経緯と日本側の冷静な対応を各国にきちんと理解してもらう必要がある。

Vice Foreign Minister Chikao Kawai has held talks with his Chinese counterpart, Zhang Zhijun, at the Chinese Foreign Ministry in Beijing. The Chinese side reportedly said that Japan "must abandon any illusion, face up to its erroneous actions and correct them with credible steps."
 河相周夫外務次官が北京で中国外務省の張志軍筆頭次官と会談した。中国側は日本に対し、「幻想を捨てて深く反省し、行動で誤りを正す」よう求めたという。

This highlighted Beijing's usual high-handed attitude. But the fact that the two nations agreed to continue talks on the matter can be viewed as positive. The government should find a way to break the deadlock by having a series of talks between foreign ministers as well as between the top leaders of the two nations.
 相変わらずの高圧的な態度だ。ただ、両国が協議の継続で一致したことは評価できる。外相や首脳同士の対話も重ね、事態打開の道筋を模索すべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 26, 2012)
(2012年9月26日01時22分  読売新聞)

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液化天然ガス 官民連携で高値買い是正せよ

2012-09-27 05:33:10 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 26, 2012)
Public, private sectors must team up to lower LNG prices
液化天然ガス 官民連携で高値買い是正せよ(9月25日付・読売社説)

Imports of liquefied natural gas to be used as fuel for thermal power plants have skyrocketed, and the price of LNG has been surging. The public and private sectors must cooperate more to ensure LNG can be procured at a lower price.
 火力発電所の燃料となる液化天然ガス(LNG)の輸入が急増し、価格も急騰している。官民連携を強め、安価での調達を目指さねばならない。

LNG-consuming nations, including Japan and South Korea, and producing countries, including Qatar, took part in the first LNG Producer-Consumer Conference in Tokyo last week.
 日本、韓国などの消費国と、カタールなど生産国による初めてのLNG会議が東京で開かれた。

Japan is the world's biggest LNG importer and sucks up 30 percent of the total production volume. Since the crisis began at Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan has increased its reliance on thermal power generation as an alternative to nuclear power.
 日本のLNG輸入量は世界1位で、全生産量の3割を輸入する。東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故後、原発の代替電源として火力発電の依存度が一層高まった。

Before the crisis, Japan's LNG import bill came to about 3 trillion yen a year. This is expected to double to about 6 trillion yen this year.
 事故前のLNG輸入額は年3兆円程度だったのに、今年は約6兆円に倍増する見通しだ。

If generation costs at electric power companies increase and these costs are passed on through higher electricity bills, it will deal a blow to industries and people's daily lives.
 電力会社の発電コストが上昇し、料金に転嫁されると、産業や国民生活に打撃を与えよう。

===

Paying a 'Japan premium'

We are concerned that LNG import prices have surged to about six times the price of natural gas in North America.
 懸念されるのは、その輸入価格が北米での天然ガス価格の約6倍にも急騰していることだ。

LNG prices in Asia are linked to crude oil prices; the recent spike in LNG is partly due to higher oil prices. During last week's conference, Japan called for a review of the current crude oil-linked pricing system, but discussions on the matter ended up being carried over to the next conference.
 アジアのLNG価格は、原油価格に連動する仕組みで、原油高につられているのが一因だ。日本は今回の会議で現行方式の見直しを訴えたが、持ち越された。

The top LNG importers following Japan are South Korea, Taiwan, China and India. Asian countries and regions import more than 60 percent of total global LNG output.
 日本に次ぐLNGの輸入国・地域は、韓国、台湾、中国、インドで、アジア勢の総輸入量は世界生産量の6割を超える。

It is essential for Japan, together with South Korea and other nations, to introduce a new pricing system and lower LNG prices by pressing producing countries.
 韓国などと結束して生産国に迫り、新価格決定方式と価格引き下げを実現することが重要だ。

As for price negotiations with LNG-producers, we hope a method in which not just a single company but many firms, including electricity and gas utilities, can jointly participate will be considered.
 生産国側との価格交渉も、1社単位ではなく、電力会社やガス会社など多数の企業が連携して行う方法を併せて検討してほしい。

With Japan unable to restart idled nuclear reactors and the government laying out a zero nuclear power policy, LNG producers are cashing in by charging a "Japan premium"--forcing Japan to pay a higher price for LNG.
 日本が原発を再稼働できず、政府が原発ゼロ方針を打ち出したことで、生産国から足元を見られ、「ジャパンプレミアム」という高値買いを強いられている。

To alleviate this situation, the government should quickly reactivate nuclear reactors once they have been confirmed safe to operate. The government must give consideration to maintaining a balance among power sources, or it could find itself at even more of a disadvantage when negotiating LNG prices.
 この状況を改めるためにも、政府は安全性が確認できた原発の再稼働を急ぐ必要がある。電源バランスを考慮しないと、LNGの価格交渉でさらに不利になろう。

===

Shale gas could be savior

In the United States and other countries, new technologies are being used to extract shale gas contained in rocks deep underground. Shale gas reserves are huge, and extracting them will likely relax the supply-demand balance in the market in the future. Some observers have called this the "shale gas revolution."
 米国などでは、地中深い岩盤に含まれる天然ガスのシェールガスが新技術で採取されている。埋蔵量は膨大で、将来、市場の需給緩和につながる可能性が高い。シェールガス革命と言われる。

It is encouraging that Japanese trading and other companies have started moves to obtain concessions to develop shale gas fields in the United States. The government should provide massive development funds and build a framework that will ensure the stable procurement of shale gas.
 日本の大手商社などが米国でのシェールガスの開発権益獲得に動き出したのは期待できる。巨額な開発資金を政府も支援し、安定調達できる体制を整えるべきだ。

However, the United States has decided that its LNG can be exported only to nations that are signatories of free trade agreements with Washington.
 ただし、米国政府はLNG輸出先について自由貿易協定(FTA)の締結国を条件としている。

The U.S. policy on LNG exports under the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement--an expanded version of an FTA--remains unclear. Nevertheless, Japan, to prepare for the future, needs to quickly announce it will participate in the TPP to ensure negotiations on the trade framework are to its advantage.
 FTAの拡大版である環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)での米国の方針は不明だが、日本は将来に備え、TPP参加を早期に表明して有利に交渉する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2012)
(2012年9月25日02時13分  読売新聞)

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中国威圧外交 リスク増大で日本の投資減も

2012-09-26 04:39:53 | 英字新聞

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Sep. 24, 2012)
Anti-Japan stance may curb investment in China
中国威圧外交 リスク増大で日本の投資減も(9月23日付・読売社説)

Anti-Japan demonstrations in cities around China to protest the Japanese government's purchase of the Senkaku Islands have mostly calmed down.
 日本の尖閣諸島国有化に反発する中国各地の反日デモは、ほぼ沈静化した。

However, it is a problem that the Chinese government is escalating its overbearing approach in diplomacy.
 だが、中国の威圧外交が強まっていることは問題である。

Chinese authorities banned demonstrations in Beijing after Tuesday, which marked the 81st anniversary of the Liutiaohu bombing incident that prefaced the Manchurian Incident.
 中国当局は、満州事変の発端となった柳条湖事件から81年となる18日を最後に、北京でのデモを禁止した。

The authorities apparently became wary that continuing to allow the demonstrations could threaten social stability because some of them developed into riots.
 一部が暴徒化したデモを容認し続けると、社会の安定が揺らぐと警戒したようだ。

But we are concerned that Chinese President Hu Jintao and other national leaders have made a series of hard-line statements against Japan. Premier Wen Jiabao said in Brussels, where the China-European Union summit meeting was held, that China "must take strong measures," referring to the Japanese government's purchase of the Senkaku Islands.
 懸念すべきは、胡錦濤国家主席ら首脳の強硬発言が相次いでいることだ。温家宝首相は、欧州連合(EU)との首脳会談が開かれたブリュッセルで、尖閣諸島国有化に言及し、「有力な措置を講じなければならない」と述べた。

Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping, who will succeed Hu at the upcoming National Congress of the Communist Party of China, also said some groups in Japan repeated mistakes and "staged the farce" of purchasing the islands.
 近く開かれる共産党大会で胡氏のポストを引き継ぐ習近平国家副主席も、「日本の一部勢力は過ちを繰り返し、島購入という茶番を演じた」と発言した。

They apparently were expressing their determination to make no concessions at all to Japan.
 日本には絶対に譲歩しない、という決意を示したのだろう。

===

Doing business in China risky

However, we believe it was to the Chinese side's disadvantage that the demonstrations have made Japanese companies keenly realize the risks of doing business in China.
 しかし、中国での事業リスクを日本企業に痛感させたことは、中国側にもマイナスではないか。

Resumption of operations is being delayed at some of the Japanese factories in China attacked by demonstrators. The Chinese side has not shown any willingness to pay compensation for damage caused during the protests. The Japanese nonlife insurance sector estimated that insurance payouts to the damaged companies would reach 10 billion yen in total. That eventually might raise insurance fees of the companies.
 反日デモで襲撃された企業の一部の工場再開は遅れている。中国側が損害賠償する姿勢は見えず、日本の損保業界は被害企業への保険金が約100億円にも上ると試算した。いずれ各社の保険料も値上がりしかねない。

It is also a matter of concern that strikes for pay raises are occurring frequently at Japanese-affiliated plants in Guangdong and other provinces in China.
 広東省などの日系工場で、賃上げを要求するストライキが頻発していることも憂慮される。

We understand why one Japanese business leader after another is expressing wariness about investment in China, saying they must be cautious.
 経済界で「対中投資は慎重にならざるを得ない」と警戒する声が続出しているのは当然である。

Japanese firms have placed much value on China as the factory of the world and increased their investment in that country. Such investment reached a total of 6.3 billion dollars last year, up 50 percent from the previous year. This contrasts with U.S. investment in China, which fell 26 percent last year to a mere 3 billion dollars.
 日本企業は中国を「世界の工場」と重視し、投資を増やしてきた。昨年の投資額は前年比50%増の63億ドルに達し、26%減の30億ドルにとどまった米国と対照的だ。

===

Millions work at Japan firms

Such aggressive investment by Japanese companies is sustaining China's employment and economy. It is estimated that several million Chinese work at Japanese-affiliated companies in China.
 こうした積極的な投資が、中国の雇用と景気を支えている。日系企業による中国での雇用者は数百万人に達するとも推計される。

The violent anti-Japan demonstrations have trampled on cooperative relations between China and Japan that have been nurtured over many years.
 過激な反日デモは、長年培ってきた日本との協調関係も踏みにじったことになる。

It is highly likely that Japanese companies will sharply curb their investment in China and instead increase investment in other Asian countries such as Vietnam and Thailand.
 日本企業の対中投資には急ブレーキがかかり、代わって、ベトナムやタイなどアジア他国への投資が増える可能性が大きい。

Because the Chinese economy is continuing to slow down due to a decrease in exports and other factors, China's real economic growth rate this year is expected to drop below 8 percent. It is certain that--depending on the investment strategy of Japanese companies--downward pressure could further increase on the Chinese economy, negatively affecting employment there.
 中国経済は輸出減などで景気減速が止まらず、今年の実質経済成長率は8%を割りそうだ。日本企業の投資戦略によっては、一段の景気の下押し圧力となり、雇用にも悪影響を与えるに違いない。

China should realize that continuing its hard line against Japan could boomerang to its own disadvantage.
 中国政府は、対日強硬姿勢を改めないと、自国にも不利になって跳ね返る恐れがあることを自覚すべきだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2012)
(2012年9月23日01時13分  読売新聞)

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