English Collection

日頃目に付いた覚えたい英単語、慣用句などの表現についてのメモです。

Bad to the bone

2013年02月26日 | 英語学習

昔「骨まで愛して」という演歌がありましたがそれを思い出させる表現がFeb. 2のJapan Timesの記事にありました。
Bad to the bone: AKB48 idol begs for fans' mercy after breaking dating ban
おそらく「骨まで愛して」も普通の国語辞典には説明している項はないと思いますが、 "Bad to the bone" も普通の英語辞書には掲載されていません。しかし、俗語辞典にはしっかりと説明がありました。
・Urban Dictionary: Bad through-and-through. Those who are bad to the bone are born that way. They make rich women beg and good women steal. Everyone fears those who are bad to the bone.
'Bad to the Bone' is also a famous 1980s blues rock single.
説明の最後にあったロックの曲についてはWikipediaその他で多くの説明がありました。この記事を書いた人はAKBメンバーの不祥事なので音楽に関係のあるこの表現 "bad to the bone" を意図的に使ったのですね。
明日から旅行でマレーシアに行きますので一週間程このブログはお休みします。

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cynosure

2013年02月25日 | 英語学習
やはりサントリーが勝ちましたね。しかし、神戸製鋼があれだけ攻めていたのにトライができず見ていてイライラしました。サントリーはディフェンスもしっかりしていた証です。
さて、内村鑑三のRepresentative Men of Japanから取り上げる最後の単語です。内村鑑三の英文には難しい単語が沢山使われています。今日取り上げる単語もその一つです。
When the temple was all filled, and "incense perfumed its four corners," Nichiran appeared on the pulpit "at the beating of a drum." A man just reaching fulness of manhood, with many marks of vigils upon him, the eyes of a zealot, the dignity of a prophet, --he was the cynosure of the whole congregation, and his opening words were watched with breathless silence.
日蓮は仏僧なので上に出てきた "cynosure" は以前取り上げた"tonsure" を想い起こさせますが、その意味ではないのは明白です。 辞書を引きます。
・Collins Dictionary: 1. a person or thing that attracts notice, esp because of its brilliance or beauty 2. something that serves as a guide: Chendru returned and for some time was the cynosure of all eyes.
・Vocabulary.com:
A figure skater on the ice is the cynosure, or focal point, of a stadium as she triple-axles through the air. All eyes are on her with admiration, though you can't be so sure she'll land it.
Cynosure, pronounced sy-na-shoor, comes from the Latin word for Ursa Minor and referred originally to the constellation Ursa Minor, also known as the North Star. While other stars travel throughout the night sky, the North Star is a fixed point, and has been used by sailors to orient them for centuries. Like a bride who attracts the attention and admiration of everyone at a wedding as she comes down the aisle, the North Star is the cynosure for travelers lost in the forest without a map. All eyes are on it.
元々北極星の意味があるのですか。なるほど。今冬の "cynosure" と言えばなんと言ってもスキージャンプの高梨沙羅選手ですね。今朝のニュースでも団体での優勝を伝えていました。凄いとしか言いようが無い。
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Beware female fairies

2013年02月24日 | 英語学習
A married couple in their early 60s was celebrating their 40th wedding anniversary in a quiet, romantic little restaurant. Suddenly, a tiny yet beautiful fairy appeared on their table She said, "For being such an exemplary married couple and for being loving to each other for all this time, I will grant you each a wish."
The wife answered, "Oh, I want to travel around the world with my darling husband!" The fairy waved her magic wand and - poof! - two luxury cruise ship tickets appeared in her hands.
The husband thought for a moment: "Well, this is all very romantic, but an opportunity like this will never come again. I'm sorry, my love, but my wish is to have a wife 30 years younger than me."
The wife and the fairy were deeply disappointed, but a wish is a wish.
So the fairy waved her magic wand and - poof! - the husband became 92 years old.
私も今週の27日(水)からマレーシア旅行に行きますが、一緒に行く家内がもっと若ければなどとは考えない事にします。
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corny

2013年02月23日 | 英語学習
I saw a restaurant the other day advertising chicken dinners for 50 cents. I went in, ordered, and was served a bowl of corn.
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watchword

2013年02月22日 | 英語学習
内村鑑三がRepresentative Men of Japanで取り上げた5人目の日本人は日蓮上人です。
故郷の小湊に戻った日蓮の個所から引用します。
On the 28th day of the fourth month of the fifth year of Kencho (1253), as the rosy sun was half above eastern horizon. Nichiren was upon a cliff looking toward the broad Pacific, and to the seas before him and the mountains behind him, and through them to the whole universe, he repeated the form of prayer he had framed for himself, the form that was intended to silence all others, to lead his disciples to the end of the earth, and be their watchword to all eternity, --the form indeed, that embodied the essence of Buddhism, the constitution of man, and of the universe. It was Nam-Myo-Ho-Rengekyo, or [in Sanskrit] Nama Saddharma-Pundarikaya, [meaning] "I humbly trust in the Sutra of the Mysterioul Law of the White Lotus."
今日覚えたい単語は上に出てきた "watchword" です。
・Macmillan Dictionary: a word or phrase that expresses someone's attitude or intention: Quality is our watchword.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary:
1: a word or phrase used as a sign of recognition among members of the same society, class, or group
2a: a word or motto that embodies a principle or guide to action of an individual or group : slogan: “safety” is our watchword b: a guiding principle: change is the watchword for both parties
・Cambridge English Dictionary: (a word or phrase which represents) the main ideas or principles directing the way that someone behaves or the way that something is done: And remember, let caution be your watchword.
標語、合言葉、モットー、そして多分念仏も "watchword" に入るのでしょう。
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obviate

2013年02月21日 | 英語学習
二宮尊徳は幕府にも認められ、利根川下流の沼地干拓計画にも参画します。
Once he was appointed by his government to report upon some possible plans of draining the great marshes on the lower course of the river Tone. If accompplished, such an enterprise would serve triple purposes of inestimable public benefit: it would recover thousands of acres of fertile land from the shallow and miasmatic marsh; would drain off surplus water in time of flood, and obviate much of damage yearly done in those quarters; and would afford a new and short passage between the river and the bay of Yedo.
この "obviate" は文脈からすると「防ぐ」の意味だと思いますが、知らない単語なので辞書を見ます。
・Macmillan Dictionary: to get rid of something such as a need or a problem: The use of this equipment should obviate the problem.
・Vocabulary.com: To obviate means to eliminate the need for something or to prevent something from happening. If you want to obviate the possibility of a roach infestation, clean your kitchen regularly.
The prefix ob means "to go against." That makes sense when you look at the words obstruct and obstacle, but how about obstetrics? Why does the name of the branch of medicine dealing with birth have the same root as words that mean "stop" or "get in the way"? Because a midwife stands opposite to, or against, the woman giving birth.
"obviate" は「防ぐ」ではなく、「取り除く」ことにより結果として「防ぐ」ことになったのですね。
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gainsay

2013年02月20日 | 英語学習
内村鑑三がRepresentative Men of Japanで取り上げた3人目は二宮尊徳でした。
The discourse ended. The governor in shame and dismay, said after a long silence, "I should say it is impossible to gainsay your argument."
この講話は、荒廃した多くの領地を実りのある耕作地にした尊徳が領主に認められ、国家老達を相手に行ったもので引用するには長すぎるので省略しました。私が覚えたい単語は "gainsay" です。
・Macmillan Dictionary: to say that someone is wrong or that something is not true: You may not have liked her, but no one could gainsay her determination.
・Vocabulary.com: Gainsay, a verb, means "contradict" or "speak out against." When you challenge authority, you gainsay, as in teachers don't like it when unruly students gainsay them.
Gainsay comes from an Old English word that means "contradict" or "say against," as in, no one dared gainsay the principal, who is well-known for giving detention to students who so much as frown at him. If you know someone who constantly corrects others, tells them that they're wrong, and says, "That's not true," more than anyone else, you have first-hand experience with the art of the gainsay.
"against" + "say" として覚える事にしよう。
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refractory

2013年02月19日 | 英語学習
上杉鷹山が布告した「伍什組合の令」、内村鑑三は英語で "the Institution of the Associations of Five and Ten" としている、からの抜粋です。
If there is one who neglects his farm, or follows not his trade and runs to other employments, or indulges in dances, theaters, banquets and other laxities, such and such like should have peremptory adomonition, first of his Association of Five, and then of Ten; and in case he is still refractory, he must be privily reported to the village authority and receive due treatment.
内村鑑三がRepresentative Men of Japanを書いたのは百年以上も前なので文体も古く、難しい単語もかなりあるのですが、ここに出てきた "refractory" を覚えたい。
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: resisting control or authority : stubborn, unmanageable: believing that rules are only for other people, he's been refractory virtually his entire life
・Vocabulary.com: Imagine yourself pulling a dog who doesn't want to walk. The dog is refractory, or stubbornly resisting your authority.
The word refractory comes from a Latin word meaning obstinate and can also be used to mean not responsive to something. If you have a cold you can't shake, you could say you have a refractory cough. The word can also be used to describe a material that maintains its strength at very high heats. The outside of the space shuttle is made of refractory material, so that it can reenter the atmosphere without burning up.
言うことを聞かない犬の例えは分かり易いですね。
ケネディ大統領は上杉鷹山を心から尊敬していたそうですが、内村鑑三のRepresentative Men of Japanを読んで鷹山の事を知ったからです。
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mammon

2013年02月18日 | 英語学習
内村鑑三のRepresentative Men of Japanを読んでいます。西郷隆盛についての記述から引用します。
Thus we see that the Japanese Revolution of 1868, like all healthful and permanent revolutions, had its origin in righteousness and God-made necessity. The land that had been obstinately closed against greed, opened itself freely toward justice and equity. Self-sacrifice of the rarest kind, based upon a voice from the innermost depth of soul, did fling open its doors to the world. They therefore sin against the height of the heavens who seek self-aggrandizement in this nation, as do they also who mistake its high-calling, and allow it to be trampled by the mammon of this world.
最後に出てきた "mammon" は知らない単語なので調べます。
・Collins Dictionary:
1.riches or wealth regarded as a source of evil and corruption
2.avarice or greed
3. (New Testament) the personification of riches and greed in the form of a false god: The `dismal science "taught only materialism, the gospel of mammon.
・Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary: material wealth or possessions especially as having a debasing influence: you cannot serve God and mammon ? Matthew 6:24
これも聖書に関係する言葉でした。
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wedding ring

2013年02月17日 | 英語学習
昨日はラグビーの日本選手権準決勝、その2戦共録画で見ました。パナソニックは出足は良かったのですが、やはりサントリーの方が地力がありました。東芝と神戸製鋼の試合は接戦で見ごたえがありました。来週の決勝が楽しみです。
さて、気がつくと今日は39年目の結婚記念日です。
At the cocktail party, one woman said to another, "Aren't you wearing your wedding ring on the wrong finger?"
The other replied, "Yes I am, I married the wrong man."
そうか、私も指輪の指を変えないといけないかなと思いましたが、他の指にはサイズが合いませんでした。
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