English Collection

日頃目に付いた覚えたい英単語、慣用句などの表現についてのメモです。

horse trading

2017年11月22日 | 英語の本を読む

The Japan Times Online Oct.15の記事からの抜粋です。
Beware, Halloween candy can be a horror for pets
It’s a trick-or-treating tradition: Dump the night’s candy haul onto the living room floor to pick out the gems, or do some horse trading with siblings or friends.
...
The excitement -- and sugar rush -- may leave humans unaware that all that candy might just be lethal for their hovering pet dogs and cats. Those four-legged family members can’t metabolize candy like humans, said Leasa Greer, manager of nutrition and regulatory affairs for Solid Gold, a line of natural, health-focused foods and treats for dogs and cats.
...
Do not let your pets eat the treats.
犬猫にとってはcaffeine, xylitol, glow sticksも危険な物質だそうです。
ところで、文中にある "horse trading" の意味が分からないので辞書を見ます。
・Oxford English Dictionary: Hard and shrewd bargaining, especially in politics.: EU leaders were gathering in Brussels last night promising there would be no repeat of the undignified horse-trading of their last treaty in Nice.
・Collins Dictionary: (US) hard bargaining to obtain equal concessions by both sides in a dispute: At the beginning of term there is horse-trading over timetables.

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orthorexia

2017年11月21日 | 英語の本を読む

The Japan Times Online Oct.8の記事からの抜粋です。
Orthorexia: When ‘healthy eating’ ends up making you sick
PARIS -- People, it seems, have never been so afraid of their food -- and, say some experts, an obsession with healthy eating may paradoxically be endangering lives.
...
The term “orthorexia nervosa” was coined in the 1990s by the then alternative medicine practitioner Steven Bratman, a San Francisco-based physician.
To be clear, orthorexia is not an interest in healthy eating -- it is when enthusiasm becomes a pathological obsession, which leads to social isolation, psychological disturbance and even physical harm. In other words, as Bratman said in a co-authored book in 2000, it is “a disease disguised as a virtue.”
"Orthorexia" の "ortho" は "orthodox" の "ortho" と関係し、"rexia" は "anorexia" と関係があるようです。つまり、特定の食べ物だけを病的にまで正しい食べ物と信じている人の様です。辞書で確認します。
  ・Oxford English Dictionary: A medical condition in which the sufferer systematically avoids specific foods in the belief that they are harmful.: The latest eating disorder is known as orthorexia nervosa, an obsessive eating of pure foods in the quest for improved health.
・Word Spy: An extreme desire to eat only healthy food.
Note: This word is based on the more famous (and, so far, more widely recognized) eating disorder, anorexia. The latter combines an-, “without,” and -orexia, “appetite.” Orthorexia modifies this by substituting the prefix ortho-, “correct or proper.” And in the same way that a sufferer of anorexia (also: anorexia nervosa) is called an (or is described as) anorexic, a sufferer of orthorexia (orthorexia nervosa) is an (or is described as) orthorexic. (A synonym for an orthorexic is food-fraidy.) The term was coined by Steven Bratman, and he provides the earliest citation.
植物しか食べないビジタリアンも "orthorexia" の一種の気がします。

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My second Clerihew

2017年11月20日 | 英語の本を読む

私は子供の頃、国語は苦手な学科で、特に詩の良さがさっぱり分かりませんでした。長じても川柳や狂言は面白いと感じますが、相変わらず詩もそうですが、俳句や能の良さもピンと来ません。
昨日のブログで "malapropism" に触れましたが、その時に付けた過去の記事へのリンク先に "Clerihew" と呼ばれるとても興味深い人物四行詩について紹介した投稿の記録があり、この風刺を含んだ詩なら楽しめるのを思い出しました。そこで早速私の二作目の "Clerihew" を作りました。

The 45th United States President Donald Trump
Who trumpets America is the world champ
Besides he is a lover of Twitter,
Because he can easily ignore a rebutter

"Clerihew" のAABBの韻に従い有名人をテーマにした四行詩です。
P.S. My first Clerihew はこちらに: http://blog.goo.ne.jp/k_akabane/e/5c62c7ed589d89d24a22f2708bface63

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idiot savant

2017年11月19日 | 英語の本を読む

Reader's Digest 10月号の記事 'Paging Dr. Malaprop' からの抜粋です。
Now, I know voice recognition is technically just a series of digital ones and zeros in a particular order, but I have come to believe that the software has the soul of an idiot savant--a ghost in the machine, if you will.
"malapropism" は12/6/20071/20/2009に取り上げた単語です。
"idiot savant" はReader's Digestに結構頻出する言葉ですね。私のブログでは8/4/2014に取り上げています。

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paranormal

2017年11月17日 | 英語の本を読む
The Art of Fear by Irene Barrallも図書館の多読コーナーにあった本です。
この本から取り上げる単語は次の個所にあった一つの単語です。
The day it all started, I was sitting with my feet on the desk reading the newspaper. The window was open, and the room was filled with the smell of flowers from the balcony below my office. My name's Mark Winters and I'm a P.I., a paranormal investigator. In many ways it's a job similar to being a private investigator, except my clients don't hire me to follow people; instead they want me to explain events they believed are supernatural.
取り上げるのは "paranormal" ですが、この後に "supernatural" が出てくるので "paranormal investigator" は超常現象を調べる探偵の意味だと思います。辞書で "paranormal" をどの様に説明しているか見ます。
・Oxford English Dictionary: Denoting events or phenomena such as telekinesis or clairvoyance that are beyond the scope of normal scientific understanding.: a mystic who can prove he has paranormal powers
・Collins Dictionary: A paranormal event or power, for example the appearance of a ghost, cannot be explained by scientific laws and is thought to involve strange, unknown forces.: A paranormal investigator tries to find a rational explanation for a series of Biblical plagues.
・Cambridge English Dictionary: impossible to explain by known natural forces or by science: This book is about people who claim to have paranormal abilities such as ESP and mind reading.
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minyan

2017年11月16日 | 英語の本を読む

Reader's Digest Sept Issueの記事 'Confessions of a word nerd' からの抜粋です。
Consequently, we have a minyan of English and linguistics majors on staff, but we also have economists, scientists of every stripe, historians, phlosophers, poets, artists, mathematicians, international business majors, and enough medievalists to staff a Renaissance Faire.
"minyan" の意味を調べます。
・Collins Dictionary: the number of persons required by Jewish law to be present for a religious service, namely, at least ten males over thirteen years of age
・Oxford English Dictionary: A quorum of ten men (or in some synagogues, men and women) over the age of 13 required for traditional Jewish public worship.: It has been increasingly difficult for the synagogues to attain a minyan - the 10 men required to conduct a service.
どの辞書を見ても同じ様な説明しかありません。記事は辞書編纂会社の話なので、ここではユダヤ教徒とは限らず単に10人の意味かと推測します。
しつこく他の辞書も調べていたら、次の俗語辞典にユダヤ人にこだわらない使用例がありました。
・Urban Dictionary: A group of at least 10 people: Sarah was so unpopular, she couldn't even find a minyan to go to her party.

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spell disaster

2017年11月15日 | 英語の本を読む

Reader's Digest Sept Issueの記事からの抜粋です。
・Never leave alphabet soup on the stove and then go out. It could spell disaster.
文脈から "spell disaster" の意味は分かりますが、"spell" にこんな使い方があるのですね。辞書で確認します。
・Oxford English Dictionary: Lead to.: the plans would spell disaster for the economy
・Collins Dictionary: If something spells a particular result, often an unpleasant one, it suggests that this will be the result.: If the irrigation plan goes ahead, it could spell disaster for the birds.
・Cambridge English Dictionary: to cause something bad to happen in the future: The new regulations could spell disaster for small businesses.; This cold weather could spell trouble for gardeners.
記事はきっとアルファベットスープに掛けて "spell" を使ったのですね。

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butter up

2017年11月14日 | 英語の本を読む

Reader's Digest Sept Issueの記事 'School's starting! Butter up your English teacher with these grammar jokes.' からの抜粋です。

・Did you hear the one about the pregnant woman who went into labor and started shouting.
"Couldn't! Wouldn't! Shouldn't! Didn't! Can't!"? She was having contractions.
・When I was a kid, my teacher looked my way and said, "Name two pronouns." I said, "Who, me?"

どちらも笑えますね。ところで "Butter up" の意味を辞書で確認します。
・Collins Dictionary: If someone butters you up, they try to please you because they want you to help or support them.: The bank has to butter up investors because it is in a fiercely competitive market.
・McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs: to flatter someone; to treat someone especially nicely in hopes of receiving special favors.: A student tried to butter the teacher up.

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get by

2017年11月13日 | 英語の本を読む

11月4日のブログの中に "STATUS" の説明として The Brits and the dictionary say "stay-tus." (In America, "stat-us" gets by.) とありましたが、 "stat-us" と発音しているのは聞いたことがありません。
ところで "gets by" の意味がよく分からないので辞書を見ます
。 ・Oxford English Dictionary: Manage with difficulty to live or accomplish something.: he had just enough money to get by: While some have taken Korean classes and have done quite well, others have plodded along getting by with a litany of stock phrases and vocabulary.
・Collins Dictionary: If you can get by with what you have, you can manage to live or do things in a satisfactory way.
アメリカでは "stat-us" と発音しても何とか通じるという事でしょうか。

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class reunion

2017年11月12日 | 英語の本を読む

During my 55th high school class reunion, I spotted an old friend.
"Bill!" I shouted. "You look exactly the same as you did in high school."
He nodded. "Now I know why I never got a date in high school."
昔からの知人に「変わっていないね」と言われるのは嬉しくないと言うことか。

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