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2016-10-20 06:34:44 | 育児

drowns, but then seems to recover, still needs to be seen by a
doctor. Severe injury to the lungs can show up hours after the
event, and it's important for the child to be near medical care.


A parent who knows how to unblock a blocked airway and how
to give rescue breaths to a child who is not breathing is prepared
to deal with most life-threatening emergencies. Most children
have healthy hearts. If a child's heart stops beating, it is usually
because the child has stopped breathing, cutting off the oxygen
supply to the heart. Reasons children may suddenly stop breath-
ing include suffocation and drowning and choking on objects or
food. (Severe pneumonia, asthma, or other diseases can occa-
sionally cause a child to stop breathing, but this doesn't happen
suddenly, so it's unlikely to be the sort of thing a parent has to
face alone.)

CPR. Every adult should be trained in life-saving techniques
and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Courses are offered
by fire departments, the Red Cross and many hospitals and clin-
ics. They will teach you how to assess a seriously ill child and get
help, administer artificial respiration, and start the heart beating
if it has stopped. The instructions below are not a substitute for
taking the course; they are only to give you an idea of what to do.
To learn CPR, you have to take a course.

Choking and coughing. When a child has swallowed something
and is coughing hard, give her a chance to cough it out. Cough-
ing is the best way to clear an object from the air passages. If the
person is able to breathe, speak, or cry, stay close by and ask
someone to call for help. Make no attempt to remove the object.
Do not slap her on the back, turn her upside down, or reach into
her mouth and try to pull the object out; those actions can drive
the object farther into the airway, causing complete obstruction
of breathing. These actions are only appropriate if the airway is
already completely blocked.



Unable to cough or breathe. When a child is choking and un-
able to breathe, cry, or speak, the object is completely blocking
the airway and air is not entering the breathing tubes. In this sit-
uation—but only if the airway is completely blocked—follow
the emergency steps outlined below.

The Infant (Up to One Year Old) with a Completely Blocked


1. If the baby is conscious, slide one hand under her back to
support her head and neck. With your other hand, hold
her jaw between your thumb and fingers and let your fore-
arm lie along her abdomen.

2. Turn the child over so she is lying face down with her head
lower than her trunk. Support her abdomen with the fore-
arm that is resting on your thigh.

3. With the heel of one hand, give the baby up to five rapid
blows in the middle of the back, high between the shoulder

4. If the object was not dislodged by the blows, turn the in-
fant face up while supporting her back with your forearm.
Remember that the child's head should be lower than her
feet. Place your middle and index fingers on her breast-
bone, in the center of her chest just below the nipple line.
Give up to five quick downward chest thrusts, trying to
create an artificial cough.


5. If the baby doesn't start to breathe or has become uncon-
scious, have someone call for help while you begin rescue
breathing. First, look for the object in the back of the
baby's throat by grabbing the tongue and the lower jaw be-
tween your thumb and fingers and lifting upward. If you
see something, slide your little finger down along the in-
side of her cheek to the base of her tongue and use a hook-
ing motion to sweep the object out. (Don't poke your
finger in her mouth if you don't see anything; this might
make the blockage worse.)

6. Next, reposition the baby to begin rescue breathing by
opening her mouth by lifting the baby's chin as you press
back on the forehead.

7. If the baby still hasn't started to breathe, tilt her head back,
lift up her chin, and completely cover both her mouth and


nose with your lips. Breathe into her twice, each time for
about one and a half seconds with just enough pressure to
make her chest rise.
8. If the air does not enter the baby's lungs, making her chest
rise, her air passage is still blocked. Start with the back
blows again, and repeat steps 3 through 7. Continue re-
peating the sequence until the baby starts to cough,
breathe, or cry or until help arrives.

The Child (Over One Year Old) with a

Completely Blocked Airway

1. Remember, first check that the airway is completely
blocked. If the child is coughing, speaking or crying, watch
but don't intervene. If the child is conscious, start with the
Heimlich maneuver. Kneel or stand behind the child and
wrap your arms around his waist. Make a fist with one
hand and put the thumb of your fist just above the child's
navel, staying well below his breastbone.

2. Cover your fist with your other hand and press your fist
into the child's abdomen with up to five quick upward


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