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スポック博士の育児書751-5SUN SAFETY英並

2016-10-20 08:54:06 | 育児


You have to think ahead and limit sun exposure before symp­toms appear.
Made in the shade. First, protect your child's skin from direct exposure to sunlight, especially between 10 A.M. and 2:00 P.M., when sunlight is strongest and most harmful. Make sure your child wears protective clothing and a hat. A good rule is that if your shadow is shorter than you are, the sun is strong enough to burn you. Remember that ultraviolet rays can damage the skin and eyes even on hazy or cloudy days. Use an umbrella at the beach. Find a shady tree at a barbecue. Wear long-sleeve shirts, long pants, bonnets and caps, anything that will come between the skin and direct sunlight. Not all clothing blocks the sun well, and it is possible to get burned through a shirt. Water does not block the sun well either, so be especially cautious while swim­ming.
Sunscreen is a must. There are three effective chemicals in sun­blocks or sunscreens: PABA esters, cinnamates, and benzophe-nones. Be sure that one or more of these are listed on the container. Sunscreens can irritate the skin of babies less than six months; it's best to keep them out of the sun. After six months, use one with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. This means that only one-fifteenth of the harmful rays get through, so fifteen minutes of sun exposure with sunscreen is the equiva­lent of one minute in the sun without it.
Use a waterproof sunscreen. Slather it on liberally at least a half hour before sun exposure, being sure not to miss any spots. Avoid the eyes, however; sunscreen stings. Reapply it frequently, every half hour or so. For a fair-skinned child who lives in a sunny climate, putting on sunblock cream or lotion should be part of his daily routine before leaving the house in the morn­ing. And a second application should be done before he goes out to play after school.

Sunglasses. Everybody should wear sunglasses, even infants. The harmful effects of ultraviolet light on the eyes don't show up until much later in life, so you can't wait for problems to appear before practicing prevention. You don't need to buy expensive sunglasses, just so the label states that they block UV rays. The darkness of the lens has nothing to do with UV protection; the lenses must be coated with a special compound that specifically blocks out UV light. Baby shades are well tolerated by most in­fants, and the child gets used to wearing sunglasses.
Insect bites are always unpleasant and occasionally dangerous. West Nile virus is one example of an illness transmitted by mos­quito bites that is spreading in the United States (see page 886.)
What you can do. Protect your child against insect bites by mak­ing sure his clothing covers as much skin as possible when the bugs are out in full force. Light-colored clothing is less attractive


to bugs. Avoid heavily scented detergents and shampoos during the bug season. Use insect repellents designed for children. If the product contains DEET, the concentration for children should not exceed 10 percent. Keep the child's hands free of repellent so it doesn't get in his eyes or mouth. DEET may be harmful if in­gested. Wash all repellent off when the child is back indoors.
Mosquitoes: Drain any standing water on your property to cut down on mosquitoes. Keep toddlers indoors at night, when mosquitoes arrive in full force. Keep doors closed, and repair damaged or missing screens.
Bees and wasps: When bees are about, avoid eating outdoors. Wash your children's hands after snacks to avoid attracting bees. It's safest to have nests removed professionally.
Ticks: Deer ticks, the carriers of Lyme disease, are very tiny creatures, the size of a pinhead. (Wood ticks, about the size of a small nail head, are more common and not harmful.) If you're not sure whether there is Lyme disease in your area, check with your doctor. You can also find a great deal of information on Lyme disease on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website,; click on Health Topics (and see page 859).
Protective clothing and DEET-containing repellants help, but you'll still need to check carefully for ticks after your child has been playing outside, especially in tall grass or near wooded areas. If you find one, the chances are good that it has not had a chance to transmit the disease. The best method for removing ticks is to use a tweezers to grab the tick as close to the skin as possible, then pull straight out. Don't use petroleum jelly (Vase­line), nail polish, or a hot match. Wash the skin with an antisep­tic, and ask your child's doctor whether your child needs to take antibiotics.
Children need to learn to leave strange dogs alone. Small chil­dren may be more likely to startle or hurt the animal and so are

more likely to be bitten. Most of the people injured by dog bites are ten years old and younger.
The breeds most commonly associated with dog-related in­juries, in order of frequency, are pit bulls, Rottweilers, and Ger­man shepherds. A combination of factors contributes to these injuries, including the behavior and upbringing of the dog, whether the dog is leashed, and the behavior of the child.
What you can do. Before you choose a family dog, read about the various breeds. Steer clear of aggressive or high-strung breeds. Spay or neuter your dog to reduce aggressive tendencies related to territorialism. Never leave infants or young children alone with any dog. (There is a series of wonderful wordless pic­ture books about a dog named Carl who proves to be an excel­lent babysitter. Enjoy the books, but don't try it at home.)
Dog rules for children. A sensitive, anxious child may need lots of reassurance before he goes anywhere near a dog. A bold, fear­less child may need to be taught specific rules for dealing with dogs. Here are some commonsense ones:
• Keep away from dogs you don't know, even if they're tied up.
• Always ask the owner before petting or playing with a dog.
• Never tease a dog, or stare directly into the eyes of a dog you don't know. Many dogs take staring as a threat or chal­lenge.
• Don't disturb a dog who is sleeping, eating, or caring for puppies.
• If a dog comes near you, don't run away; he probably just wants to sniff you.
• If a dog knocks you over, curl up in a ball and stay still.
• Beware of dogs while biking or skating.
Holidays are exciting and often memorable but can also bring special hazards. Consider the Fourth of July and Halloween.
The Fourth of July. The use of fireworks on the Fourth of July results in almost six thousand injuries to children each year. These injuries usually involve the hands, fingers, eyes, or head, sometimes resulting in the loss of a finger or limb or in blind­ness. Children and fireworks are a bad combination. Fireworks are illegal in many states and are not recommended for personal use. Even sparklers, which seem so harmless, are a tragedy wait­ing to happen. Why take the risk? When viewing public fire­works displays, stay far away and protect the ears of small children from the loud explosions.
Halloween. Injuries on October 31 are often caused by falls, pedestrian mishaps, and burns and rarely by vampires and witches. Most important, make sure that costumes and masks don't obstruct your child's vision. Face paint or makeup is often safer than a mask. Trick or treaters should carry flashlights and not cut through yards where they may trip on items they cannot see. Shoes and costumes should fit so as not to cause tripping, and such items as fake swords and knives should be of flexible material that cannot cause injury. To prevent bums, make sure costumes, masks, beards, and wigs are made of flame-resistant materials. Clothing that is very loose is more likely to come into contact with candles (in a jack-o'-lantern, for example). Put re­flective tape on bags and costumes so that cars can see trick or treaters. Remind children to obey all traffic rules and not to dart out between parked cars. Accompany young children and wait until arriving home before eating any treats. Children under age eight should not trick or treat without the supervision of an adult or older sibling. Instruct children to travel only on well-established routes, stop only at homes with outside lights on,
and not to enter a home unless accompanied by an adult.
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