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英国paper代写-Professional sports organizations

2017-07-13 17:39:52 | 日記
本篇英国paper代写-Professional sports organizations讲了组织文化融合了组织成员的集体价值观,信仰原则和行为,为组织的独特社会和心理环境做出贡献。传统上,组织文化在商业领域更广泛和适用,大量文献已经讨论了公司在企业中的关键作用,但对专业体育组织的研究却很少。本篇paper代写由51due英国代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

According to Needle (2010), organizational culture incorporates collective values, beliefs principles and behaviors of organization members that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. Traditionally, organizational culture is more widespread and applicable in the business field, and a large number of literatures had discussed the crucial role of it within companies, but little research has been done regarding to professional sports organizations.
However, sports teams, especially basketball teams, are the most typical organizations with the representative features of values, beliefs, which gradually form the unique identity of culture within a group of team players. Among the numerous basketball teams in the world, Chicago Bulls is one of the most successful teams without doubt. It had cultivated quite a lot of excellent players such as Michael Jordan, who was a legend in the sporting world. Besides, there were brilliant and visionary coaches such as Phil Jackson. Founded in 1966, Chicago Bulls has a long history in NBA and impressive records of victory, during which organizational culture plays a significant role for its countless success.
The first organizational culture of Chicago Bulls is a strong sense of sportsmanship. Though sportsmanship is a necessary condition to build a powerful team and win as much competitions as possible, whether it belongs to the category of organizational culture is still open to discussion. In fact, sportsmanship itself has a lot in common with the characteristics of an efficient organization. As for Chicago Bulls, on the one hand, most of the team players possess a high level of basketball skills and strong intentions to reach the same goal. On the other hand, they have fostered team spirit through long-term training and are able to cooperate with each other very well.
Furthermore, leadership and power of model also exert constructive effects on the development of Chicago Bulls. To some extent, organizational culture depends on the characters and behavioral style of the leader. A coach to a basketball team is like a leader to a company. Thanks to the guidance of Philip Jackson, Chicago Bulls had fostered a type of organizational culture that is supportive and encouraging, allows for the space for every team member to fully tap their potential and display their ability on the basketball court. What Philip Jackson was good at were not only basketball strategies and tactics, but also the art of getting along and building harmonious relationships with team players, regardless of his status as their respected coach. I cannot tell why a team with an organizational culture that pays attention to individual values and a leader who can unite them together would not stand out from its rivalries.
Another key figure who made exceptional contributions to organizational culture of Chicago Bulls is Michael Jordan, a legendary basketball superstar throughout the history of NBA. However, he acted the role of idol more than a leader. The existence of such an excellent player not only inspired the other members to learn from the best, but also made them assured that they could depend on someone reliable to win the games. From the view of Philip Jackson, Jordan was not a born a leader, but a born performer. Furthermore, he was a practical and cooperative player, though he was not very interested in Philip’s “triangle offense” at first, he did not refuse to have a try. In this sense, Jordan also played a part in forming the organizational culture that values and follows guidance from the leader in Chicago Bulls.
In addition, Chicago Bulls is motivated by which is described as “task culture” by Charles Handy (1976). In task culture, teams are organized to solve particular problems, and power is originated from the individuals with the expertise to implement a task. This culture adopts a small team approach, where people are highly skilled and specialized in their own field of expertise. For one thing, compared with large-scale organizations with multiple departments and objectives, a basketball team is a much smaller team with simpler target, to beat the opponents and win the championship. For another, the players in the Chicago Bulls are all highly professional in their specific roles, no matter as center, power forward, shooting guard or point guard, etc. As a result, these conditions enable Chicago Bulls to form an organization culture that achieving the tasks in the most efficient and effective way.
In general, the organizational cultures reflected from Chicago Bulls meet the standards of “constructive cultures” that put forward by Robert A. Cooke (1987), who defined culture as the behaviors that are required for members to fit in and meet expectations from their organization. In constructive cultures, people are encouraged to interact with other members and work as teams instead of merely as individuals. Moreover, they are able to complete tasks in ways that support them to meet higher-order satisfaction demands. That means in order to cultivate constructive cultures, it is necessary for an organization to play as a whole and give consideration to personal achievement at the same time.
When it comes to the case of Chicago Bulls, though the individual worth of Jordan had contributed a lot to the team, he himself alone could never achieve such a success without the assistance of his coach and teammates. To some extent, it is Chicago Bulls that makes Jordan and Jordan makes Chicago Bulls stronger. As for the team members, tight and close relationships were not established in one day, it also took a certain period of time for Chicago Bulls players to get along with each other. And only through hundreds of practices and battles together in the long term, can a basketball team coordinate very well and truly build their constructive cultures.
Specifically, there are four crucial elements of constructive organizational cultures. First is achievement, which involves fulfilling a task successfully by efforts, skills or courage. Driven by challenging goals or demanding results, it requires the organization to formulate strategies and make plans beforehand, as well as explore alternatives ahead and learn from their mistakes. In Chicago Bulls, it was Philip Jackson who took this significant responsibility, and it is acknowledged that he has done a great job to guide the ever victorious team.
Second is self-actualizing, which is self-fulfillment, personal growth, or realization of one's potential. This requires a suitable environment or platform for team members to learn and improve.
Third is humanistic-encouraging, which is about helping others to grow and develop. This requires devotion of time and energy to coach and counsel others. In this aspect, Philip Jackson is thoughtful and considerate, who provide every team member with support and encouragement.
Fourth is affiliative, which is reflected from acts of develop and sustain pleasant relationships. In this regard, Philip Jackson advocated sharing thoughts and feelings within teams as well as being friendly and cooperative.
When these essential elements to deliver an outstanding basketball team combined together, and eventually become a collective habit and belief of every team member, then it is the time that we witness the birth of a positive organizational culture of Chicago Bulls.
Reference
Cooke, R. A. (1987). The Organizational Culture Inventory. Plymouth, MI: Human Synergistics, Inc.
Needle, D. (2010). Business in context: an introduction to business and its environment. South-Western Cengage Learning.
Silva, M. D. C., & Gomes, C. F. S. (2015). Practices in project management according to Charles Handy's organizational culture typologies. Procedia Computer Science, 55, 678-687.

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