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英国paper代写-A Psychological Perspective on Sleep Insufficiency

2017-07-13 17:27:59 | 日記
本篇英国paper代写-A Psychological Perspective on Sleep Insufficiency讲了睡眠不足是普通人群中常见的现象,对身体健康造成伤害的心理健康。目前的研究提出了心理视角下睡眠不足和睡前拖延的关系。睡前拖延是拖延的新领域,意味着人们在预期的时间没有任何其他外部环境因素睡觉。数据来自Deakin大学的心理学生的代表性样本。本篇paper代写由51due英国代写平台整理,供大家参考阅读。

Abstract
Insufficient sleep is a common phenomenon among general population which do harm to humans well-being on physical health an psychological health. The current study proposes the relationship between getting insufficient sleep and bedtime procrastination in terms of psychological perspective. Bedtime procrastination is an new area of procrastination meaning people fails to sleep at intended time without any other external environmental factor. The data comes from a representative sample of psychological students of Deakin University. That showed the significant proportion of general population existed bedtime procrastination phenomenon. Moreover, the recent study has explored the relation between the insufficient sleep and self-regulation skills. The bedtime procrastination plays a role to mediate them.
Key Words :Bedtime procrastination, self-regulation, insufficient sleep, big five personality factors, physical and psychological health
Introduction
In recent years, experts claimed that sufficient sleep, balanced diet and proper physical exercise were three basements of healthy life (Ozaki, 2009). Sleep insufficiency does harm to physical as well as mental resulting in declined elaborative faculty, impaired awareness and judgment, imbalanced immune function, etc.
For all lots of researches have been explained reasons of insufficient sleep which were attributed to sleeping disorders (e.g.Swanbson et al., 2011) or external factors (e.g. Working nightshifts, Ohyon et al., 2010). Swanbson in his study put forward a common sleep problem among workers called chronic sleep deprivation. This phenomenon caused low productivity, occupational accidents, absenteeism and other negative performance at work. Basing on the 2008 Sleep in America poll, Swanbson drew a conclusion that sleep disorders including Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and insomnia was the significant reasons of chronic sleep deprivation, which were associated with workers performance (Swanbson et al., 2011). Ohyon in his study investigated the representative sample of general population in the state of New York. In the study, he examined the influence of work schedule on sleep attacks, excessive sleepiness, sleep duration, driving and domestic/ professional accidents. He found that shift workers on rotating schedules, particularly nighttime workers were associated with a variety of harmful effects on their health due to the night and shift arrangements. In addition, he hold the view that nigh and shift work as the external environmental factors begot the phenomenon of sleep insufficiency, sleep duration, excessive sleepiness and other sleep problems among working population (Ohyon et al., 2010).
Putting off bedtime is consciously while not because of external circumstances, which performs at bedtime in terms of psychological phenomenon called bedtime procrastination (Kroese et al., 2014). Previous studies are seldom to concentrate on insufficient sleep caused by putting off planning bedtime was a kind of procrastination. The prior authors like Swanbson (2010), Grigsby-Toussaint (2015) and etc. just simply regarded insufficient sleep was caused by external environment including panic illness, temperature, and pressure, noisy and so forth (e.g.Turi et al., 2015). Although recent findings began to notice the self-regulation as a new breakthrough on studying sleep insufficiency of psychological perspective, the effect of self-control seems to roughly and study stayed on this stage and not to move forward. The current study tried to put forward another view different from the previous studies that people fail to sleep at intended time is result of the procrastination.
Procrastination, as a kind of physical obstacle, is a popular and problematic psychological phenomenon existing in general population (Steel, 2007). In the domain of psychological behavior, a great deal of authors has been studied in this area. Bedtime procrastination is a new area of procrastination; it can bring about some negative consequences to individual well-being as well as other typical procrastination. According to the definition of bedtime procrastination (Kroese et al., 2014), it means that a person fails to go to sleep at the intended time whereas no external factors to stop him from doing so. In 2016, the author Kroese put forward the latest findings about the bedtime procrastination. The author asked sample of participants on MTurk (N=154, 58 percent men) to think back to the last time they went bed late and indicate why they went to bed late in order to better understand bedtime procrastinators and their motivations (Nauts & Kroese, 2015). He found that participants delay their intended bedtime without external factors. Hence, he drew the conclusion that bedtime procrastination was on of causes of insufficient sleep. More importantly, he also found that bedtime procrastination owned the same character with general procrastination. They would be a common underlying personality trait of having low self-regulation. Moreover, people who were generally easily distracted from their long-term goals were also more likely to delay their bedtime (Kroese, 2016).
In terms of the Kroese latest findings, the current study posited that self-control has a relation with insufficient sleep and other internal psychological factors including conscientiousness, impulsivity and action control also can make influence to bedtime procrastination.

Method
Participants
Participants were most of the Deakin University HPS307/ HPS 791 psychology students, which is a representative sample of general individuals who voluntarily took part in the Personality unit of the Internet survey. In addition, any person 18 years older can share and complete the link. There were 598 participants (aged 18-64) including 570 women and 58 men (N=330, M=27.67, SD=9.98 years). All students were received the questionnaire on the internet and they finished before July, 24.
Materials
The questionnaire included 84 questions covered participants’ personality traits, self-regulation skills, time management ability, life style and chronotype. The Bedtime Procrastination Scale, (Kroese, Evers, Adriaanse, & de Ridder, 2016) included 9 items in total. The scale used 5-point Like items to grade the degree, among which the minimum value 1 represents (almost) never and the maximum value 5 represents (almost) always. Items 2, 3, 7 and 9 are reverse-coded. Higher scores accordingly reflect the high level of procrastination. The Composite Scale of Moringness, (Amith, Reilly & Midkiff, 1989) consisted 13 items in total. Each item has a unique set of Likert-type response options. Every item has a distinctive set of Likert-type respectively reflect options. The score is gained through collecting and summing the items and owns a possible range, among which the maximum value 13 means extreme eveningness and the maximum value is 55 means extreme morningness. Neo-FFI, (Costa, & McCrae, 2010) included 60 items in total. The sub-scales numbers is equal to 5 with 12 per trait scale (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness and Neuroticism). The scale used 5-point Like items to grade the degree, among which the 0 represents strongly disagree, and the 1 represents disagree, the 2 represents neutral, the 3 represents agree and the 4 represents strongly agree. Each of the five factors are gathered by summing the response of participants on every of 12 relevant items. The possible range of scores for each factor is 0 to 48. The higher scores indicate higher levels of the named trait.
Procedure
The collection and integration of obtained data are by unit team. The designed questionnaire on the internet consisted of questions on time management, self- regulation, bedtime procrastination, personality traits and other typical procrastination.
Result
Following screening to ensure the assumptions of the analyses were met, correlational analyses were conducted to evaluate the main predictions regarding the relation s between the Big Five personality factors and Bedtime procrastination and the relation between the Chornotype and Bedtime procrastination. Means and standard deviations of the variables included in the analyses are detailed in Table 1 below. As can be see below, participants, on average, were relatively high in openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and were somewhat lower in neuroticism and extraversion. In addition, means and deviations was relatively high in chronotype.

Discussion
Getting sufficient sleep is very crucial for human well-being not only on physical aspect but also psychological aspect in terms of study. The current study aims to explore the relations between the bedtime procrastination and insufficient sleep from psychological perspective. Importantly, the current study wanted to learn about how the self-regulation as a psychological cause of bedtime procrastination to affect sleep insufficiency among general population. The current research proposed that self-control has a relation with insufficient sleep and other internal psychological factors including conscientiousness, impulsivity and action control also can make influence to bedtime procrastination based on the Kroese (2016) latest findings. In terms of the result, chronotype and big five personal traits were also the causes of bedtime procrastination, which were not considered into the hypotheses. On the other hand, the results also reflected that self-regulation (i.e. self-control conscientiousness, impulsivity and action control ) was the significant reason to why people appeared bedtime procrastination. In conclusion, the hypotheses was not comprehensive. Bedtime procrastination was one of causes of sleep insufficiency.
Bedtime procrastination as a new area of procrastination owns the similar character with the general procrastination. Bedtime procrastination would be a common underlying the personality trait of having low self-regulation as the general procrastination. Bedtime procrastination is one of the insufficient sleep. Previous authors such as Swanbson, Ohyon, etc. they drew the conclusion that insufficient sleep caused by sleep disorder or external factors. That was one of the reasons of sleep insufficiency in terms of physical or external perspective. The recent study based on the initial findings and combined with the new character of times and modern society, finding that bedtime procrastination is one of causes of insufficient sleep in terms of psychological perspective. Self- regulation is also the psychological aspect to explain why people appear bedtime procrastination.
The limitations of the current study were obvious. Although this study put self-regulation as a psychological perspective to explain the relations between bedtime procrastination and insufficient sleep, it is hard to identify the accurate relations between self-regulation and insufficient sleep. As a matter of fact, the casual relationships and associations are more subtle and more complicated. This study just preliminary and roughly put forward the relationships between self-regulation and insufficient sleep. Self-regulation is able to cause bedtime procrastination. However, the study could not distinguish the bedtime procrastination caused by self-regulation to affect getting sufficient sleep or the self-regulation cause another procrastination or other psychological obstacles to make people delayed their time to do something including failing to go to bed.
Finally, the current study anticipates that new interesting opportunities for future research that investigates possible strategies for helping to overcome bedtime procrastination to go to bed at time they planned to. Aiming at deal with the relationship between getting insufficient sleep and self-regulation strategies would be innovative and interesting approach, as most previous studies have concentrated on, for instance, sleep-disorders. The further study on bedtime procrastination would become more subtle and comprehensive due to use more variables and more representative samples along with the raising of problems caused by insufficient sleep. The self-control not only can cause bedtime procrastination but also help people toget rid of disturbance from external environmental factors.
The recent study was much honored to learn from the findings and contributions of previous researches. The study of Swanbson (2011) provided that people are the sleep disorder made worker performance negatively and other occupational accidents. Sleep disorder was the cause of sleep insufficiency and poor performance at work.
Ohyon (2010) also offered that night and work night shift could begot sleep duration, sleepiness and sleep attacks. Korese (2016) latest findings made great contributed to the recent study to learn about the self-regulation as psychological perspective of bedtime procrastination to make influence to the insufficient sleep.
In conclusion, the current study addresses a significant but still understudy matter through showing the great extent to which people in the general population are suffering insufficient sleep, and putting this insight into self-regulation perspective. This study just the way or stepping tone to help latter researchers to explore the bedtime procrastination and sleep insufficient.

References
Grigsby-Toussaint, D. S., Turi, K. N., Krupa, M., Williams, N. J., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., & Jean-Louis, G. (2015). Sleep insufficiency and the natural environment: results from the us behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. Preventive Medicine, 78, 78-84.
Kroese, F. M., Evers, C., Adriaanse, M. A., & de Ridder, D. T. (2014). Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population. Journal of Health Psychology 21(5). 853-862.
Kroese, F.M., de Ridder DTD, Evers C, et al. (2014) Bedtime procrastination: Introducing a new area of procrastination. Frontiers in Psychology 5: 611.
Kroese, F. M., Nauts, S., Kamphorst, B. A., Anderson, J. H., & Ridder, D. D. T. D. (2016). Bedtime procrastination: A behavioral perspective on sleep insufficiency. Perspectives on Procrastination, Health, and Well-Being.
Ohayon M, Smolensky M and Roth T (2010) Consequences of shift-working on sleep duration, sleepiness and sleep attacks. Chronobiology International 27: 575-589.
Ozaki, I., Konishi, M., & Katakura, K. (2009). Development of self-efficacy scales for middle-aged male workers' health practices : well-balanced diet, physical activity, sleep, drinking behavior, and smoking cessation. Journal of Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing, 12, 35-43.
Randler, C. (2008). Morningness–eveningness, sleep–wake variables and big five personality factors. Personality & Individual Differences, 45(2), 191-196.
Soldalos C, Allabert F, Ohta T, et al. (2005) How do individuals sleep around the world? Results from a single-day survey in ten countries. Sleep Medicine 6: 5-13.
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 65-94.
Swanson L, Arned t J, Rosekind M, et al. (2011) Sleep disorders and work performance: Findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in American poll. Journal of Sleep Research 20: 23-27.
Vendramel, S. (2014). Explaining why larks are future-oriented and owls are present-oriented: self-control mediates the chronotype-time perspective relationships. Chronobiology International, 31(4), 581-588.

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